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BELGIAN CONGO. BY: Gina Ferriola , Lindsey Carter, Amy Myers. Initial Occupation. 1885 The Berlin Conference approves King Leopold’s claim to “The Congo Free State” as his personal colony until 1908. International investors supported his claim to Congo.

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  1. BELGIAN CONGO BY: Gina Ferriola, Lindsey Carter, Amy Myers

  2. Initial Occupation • 1885 The Berlin Conference approves King Leopold’s claim to “The Congo Free State” as his personal colony until 1908. • International investors supported his claim to Congo. • He established rule with his personal army and he also expected the Belgian army to assist. Info Source: ("Congo Free State,"). Picture: hbw2000.com

  3. Benefits To The Imperial Power • Ivory and rubber were the main exports. Both were collected through a system of slave labor controlled by Leopold’s agents. • The forest elephant population was depleted and the focused changed to rubber collection • Pneumatic tires drastically increases the demand for rubber. Picture: vietnambusiness.asia Info Source: ("Congo- the Brutal," n.d.).

  4. Treatment Of Indigenous People • 8-10 million people died as a result of Leopold’s policies. • They were enslaved • Families were kidnapped to force people to produce rubber. • Cut off peoples hands if they did not produce enough rubber. Info Source: ("Congo- the Brutal," n.d.). Picture: en.wikipedia.org

  5. Belgian Congo Money • Picture: coins.ha.com

  6. The Congo Free State Map Picture: gutenberg.org

  7. Belgian Congo Map Picture: Culturegrams.com

  8. The Democratic Republic of Congo • Picture:lonelyplanet.com

  9. Indigenous perspective • King Leopold IIand his army took over power in Congo. • King Leopold II and the Force Publique terrorized the Congolese by kidnapping the families of the workers and cutting off hands if they didn’t produce enough rubber • In 1908 Congo was taken from Leopold and turned into a Conley ruled but the Belgians • The worst abuses were eliminated because the Belgians still wanted the copper, oil, diamonds and other minerals • (Congo). http://weallbe.blogspot.com/2010/07/passing-of-patrice-lumumba.html

  10. Benefits and modernization • The Belgian modernized the colony • The Belgians built railroads and automobiles • They brought over electricity and telephones • ("Encyclopedia Britannica,“). http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/59224/Belgian-Congo

  11. Cultural imperialism • The Belgians forced many different Congo tribes to live together • The Belgians set up Belgian style schools • The Congolese lost their native language and way of religion • The Belgians brought a new system of law • (Everything Culture," ). http://sfbayview.com/2011/50-years-after-lumumba-the-burden-of-history/

  12. Resistance and independence movements • Congo rebelled from beginning • The first Congolese party started in 1958 whose name was Congo nation movement • In 1959 riots broke out and Congo people demanded independence • Congo became an independent republic on June 30, 1960 • ("Encyclopedia Britannica," ). http://www.rnw.nl/africa/article/belgian-reign-terror-casts-shadow-over-congolese-anniversary-0

  13. The Congo free state flag

  14. The Democratic Republic of Congo Red for people's blood Yellow for prosperity Blue for hope Star for unity (“Democratic republic of Congo”). http://flagspot.net/flags/cd.html

  15. Consequences on the Imperial Power • Belgium gained wealth from the rubber in ivory they exported. • King Leopold was criticized for exploiting and enslaving the Africans. • Edward Morrel wrote about the horrible situation in the Belgian Congo. • Belgium’s treatment of the African people is an example of European Social Darwinism (Congo Free State, 2011) en.wikipedia.org

  16. Consequences on the Occupied Region • When the Belgians left the country was unstable • The Congo lost a lot of its resources • Most people live in poverty • Government corruption has caused civil wars picture:mydailyclarity.com (Democratic Republic of the Congo, n.d.).

  17. Modern Status Congo Belgium • GDP-$37,900 per year • Literacy rate-99% • HDI-.867 (rank 18) • GDP-$300 per year • Literacy rate-67.2% • HDI-.239 (rank 168) seputarforex.com (The World Factbook, n.d.).

  18. Compensation • when people realized the Belgians were treating the Congolese horribly the international community forced King Leopold to end his rule and give control of the country to Belgium • Most of the worst abuses stopped: kidnapping of families, mutilation, and slavery. • Belgium apologized for killing the Congolese president Lumumba. (Lumumba Apology: Congo's, n.d.) blackhistoryheroes.blogspot.com

  19. Mobutu • took control of Congo in 1965 • -made all political parties illegal because they were causing problems in the country • 1967 he made one political party mandatory it was called the (MPR) Popular Movement of the Revolution. • Made Congo a policy of Africanisation country, he made a new flag, new national anthem, and changed the name of the country to Zaire. • Mobutu also changed the capital name from Leopoldville to Kinshasa. • The people of Congo even had to get African names, if they didn’t have one. • He bribed any of his rivals with money to keep them happy. • Nationalized foreign owned business and made Western investors leave (Zaire). • 1990 had to unban the rule against political parties and then in 1997 he was over powered and fled the • country with his family. • Congo was in debt billions of dollars by the 1980’s because of him but he didn’t care because he was billions of dollars wealthier • ( Mobutu of Zaire, 2005-2011) fxcuisine.com

  20. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Congo Free State. (2011). Retrieved February 14, 2011, from In Encyclopædia Britannica website: http://school.eb.com/‌eb/‌article-9025854 • Democratic Republic of the Congo. (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://school.eb.com/‌eb/‌article-9443169?query=democratic%20republic%20of%20congo&ct= • International Human Development Indicators. (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2011, from UN website: http:’’hdrstats.undp.org/‌en/‌countries/‌ profiles/‌Bel.html • Lumumba Apology: Congo’s mixed feelings . (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2011, from BBC website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/‌2/‌hi/‌africa/‌1805546.stm • The World Factbook. (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2011, from https://www.cia.gov/‌library/‌publications/‌the-world-factbook/‌geos/‌cg.html • Congo. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from Encyclopædia Britannica database. • Encyclopædia Britannica. (n.d.). Belgian Congo . Retrieved from http://school.eb.com/‌eb/‌article-9015197 • everything culture. (n.d.). Democratic Republic of the Congo . Retrieved 2011, from http://www.everyculture.com

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