Hands-On Grammar ADVANCED
Noun Functions • Direct object • Indirect object • Predicate nominative • Appositive • Noun of direct address • Subject • Object of the preposition
D.O. Direct Object • receives the action of the verb • noun or pronoun that follows the action verb • underlined and coded with a circle around it and D.O. above it • EXAMPLE: The chair scraped the floor. • The chair is the subject, scraped is the action verb, and floor is the direct object. • Scraped what ? Answer: floor
D.O. I.O. Indirect Object • tells to whom or for whom the action is done • noun or pronoun that is between the action verb and the direct object (can’t have an indirect object without a direct object) • underlined and coded with a box around it and I.O. above it • EXAMPLE: Susan gave Bob a gift. • Susan is the subject, gave is the action verb, gift is the direct object, and Bob is the indirect object. • Gave what (gift) to whom ? Answer: Bob
Predicate Nominative • noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject • underlined and coded with a P.N. above it • Examples: Mrs. Jones is the principal. • It was a forest. • His shoes are cleats. P.N. P.N. P.N.
APP Appositive • word or phrase that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that comes right before it • underlined and coded with a circle around it and APP above it • Example: • Thomas Edison, an American inventor, is • responsible for many patents.
Noun of Direct Address • names the person or group being spoken to • underlined and coded with NDA above it • Example: • Are you sure that is the right • answer, John? NDA
Subject • noun or pronoun that the sentence is about • underlined and coded with S above it • Examples: • Joshua gathered his toys. • Green men will not invade Earth! S S
OP OP Object of the Preposition • noun or pronoun that follows the preposition • underlined and coded with OP above it and close the parentheses after it • Example: • Ronald hobbled down the street • because he twisted his ankle getting • out of the car.
Other Functions • Predicate adjective • Infinitive • Possessive noun/pronoun • Clauses
P.A. adj. Predicate Adjective • adjective that follows a linking verband describes the subject • coded like an adjective and with P.A. above it • Example: • His shoes are incredibly comfortable.
adv. D.O. Infinitive • to plus a verb (to eat, to sleep) that can act as an adjective, adverb, or noun • coded with parentheses around it and with its function as an adjective, adverb, or noun • Example: • Martians might use flying saucers • to invade Earth. • He wants to start right away.
adj. adj. Possessive Noun/Pronoun • noun or pronoun that shows ownership of another noun or pronoun • coded like an adjective • Examples: • Her cheeks were so red! • Is that Angela’s sweater?
Clauses • are dependent (cannot stand alone) • can be noun, adjective, or adverb clauses • when building sentences with clauses, each clause only needs one card (n, adj, adv)
Noun Clauses • usually begin with the following words: • that, how, when, where, whether, why, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, whomever, which, whichever • can serve as a subject, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, or predicate nominative • coded with an underline under entire clause • Example: • The director determined who would design the set. • A love of theater is what motivates her.
adj. Adjective Clauses • usually begin with a relative pronoun: • who, whom, whose, that, which • tell which one, what kind, or how many, and describe nouns or pronouns • coded with parentheses around it and like an adjective • Example: • The gear that a climber brings is important • to his success.
adv. Adverb Clauses • usually begin with a subordinating conjunction: • if, because, before, than, as, even though, so that, while, where, when, as if, since • tell where, when, why, how, to what extent, and under what conditions • coded with parentheses around it and like an adverb • Example: • Because the trails were slippery, they were cautious.