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American Landscape Design PowerPoint Presentation
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American Landscape Design

American Landscape Design

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American Landscape Design

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Presentation Transcript

    1. American Landscape Design Themes in the history of the designed American landscape

    2. Introduction Complement country house history presented in readings and Mr. Brooks lecture Focus on themes (vs. chronological survey) Relevant to understanding Oldfields and interpreting the campus landscape history

    3. Colonial landscape s Stylistic traditions Spanish town plans and plazas English field systems and town commons Individual designers importing European designs Joseph Bonapartes estate in New Jersey Ramees design for Union College Francis Nicholsons baroque town plans for Williamsburg, St. Marys City, and Annapolis Colonial revival traditions Anglo Spanish/Mediterranean

    4. Colonial landscapes Plant collection and exchange Landscape philosophy Ferme ornee Picturesque Tension between creation of the uniquely American and referencing European antecedents and practices Ex. Jefferson at Monticello

    5. Gardens and social identity Display of status and wealth Land and labor devoted to ornamental purpose Creation of a social stage/setting for activities associated with peer groups Access to resources (art, rare plants, etc.) Colonial contexts Gardens as a display of knowledge equated with allied arts of humanism (geometry, architecture, mathematics, astronomy, museum, political philosophy)

    6. Gardens and social identity Displays of moral fitness and civic worthiness Slovenly yard equated with dubious character of residents Tidy, well-kept yard a sign of an upstanding citizen Display of community and group identity Suburbia and the common front lawn Role of fences and their symbolic import

    7. Landscapes as social spaces Public spaces Town plans Navigation, visual alignments, gatherings, ceremonial spaces, defense, Parks Promenades (see and be seen) Vehicles for health and moral reform Democracy/class relations Waterworks Civic celebration Fire suppression temperance

    8. Landscapes as social spaces Private residences Work labor/leisure spaces and how displayed Role of slaves, indentured servants, laborers Introduction of technologies (lawn mowers, sprinklers, etc.)

    9. Landscapes as social spaces Private residences Social stages Terraced gardens of Virginia (Upton) Social hierarchy and differential access Slaves and the subversion of the landscape design Gendered roles in the garden Activity areas Recreation: bowling greens, tennis courts, swimming pools Circulation routes and barriers: walks, avenues, promenades, paths, bridges, gates, fences

    10. Landscapes as social spaces Private residences Vision as a social construct Views out The vista The prospect Views in Screened Framed Views within The approach The processual landscape Privileging views and single point perspective

    11. Landscapes and travellers Travel writing Tropes of description Tourism Construction of the canon; iconic landscapes Ways of consuming sites and sights Transportation and the impact on landscape design Transportation corridors (railway right of ways, highways The automobile and residential design

    12. Humans and the environment Botany as science Naturalists approach to observation, experimentation (John Bartram and microclimates) Collection expeditions (William Bartram)

    13. Humans and the environment Habitat and climate constraints and opportunities (rainfall, soil, topography, materials) adaptation and appropriation Vernacular architecture and garden traditions (ex. Fence types) Ecologically appropriate vs. inappropriate choices Lawns in the dessert vs. xeriscaping

    14. Humans and the environment Plant propagation Ecological imperialism Early breeding and grafting experiments Introduction of affordable greenhouses Specialized plant raising structures (for roses, camellias, etc. in elite residence Small greenhouses for modest homes Commercial nurseries and availability of annuals bedding out styles, seasonal changes, hybrids Native plants movements Inclusion/exclusion tension