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Rise of Absolutism

Rise of Absolutism

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Rise of Absolutism

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  1. Rise of Absolutism

  2. Thirty Years War • What is the point of this “basically meaningless conflict?” • Demonstrates the rise in national interests over religious interests. • Huge win for Protestantism • Big loss for the Catholic Church • Peace of Westphalia • All “german” states determine religion, France gains some land (Alsace, Verdun, Toul, etc.) Holy Roman Emperor now a figurehead

  3. Military revolution • GustavusAdolophus– King of Sweden revolutionized the military after the 30 Years War. • Firearms replace bows • Pike-man(spear) replace knights • Conscripts replace mercenaries • More trained military • More bureaucracy to control military • MORE MONEY to maintain military!!

  4. Absolutism • Absolute Monarchs claimed absolute power over their subjects lives. • Divine Right of Kings • Not subject to parliaments, estates, congresses etc. • Cardinal Richelieu: Louis XIII’s minister • Limited rights of Huguenots (no private armies) • Network of spies killed conspirators (limiting threat of nobles) • Intendants carried out work of central government • Not as good with money

  5. Cardinal Mazarin • Louis XIV’s minister: Louis was only 4 when he became king • Fronde: • Nobles of the Robe (by job) revolted to eliminate the Italian Cardinal but are stopped • Nobles of the Sword revolt (by blood) but then fight with nobles of the robe and Mazarin wins again 1652 • Mazarin demonstrated with both that the monarchy needed to be strong and not give in to others

  6. Louis XIV • King at 4 but not sole ruler until 23 (1643-1715) when Mazarin dies • Quote 452 • Administration in Government: • Palace built in Versailles • Brings high nobles to be preoccupied with court life • Subservient ministers do his bidding • Those he could not persuade were bribed

  7. Louis XIV • Religious policy: • Did not want the protestant minorities to challenges his power so makes the Edict of Fontainebleau • Popular among most French people but lost many skilled protestants • Finances: • Cost of Versailles was ridiculous • Jean-Baptiste Colbert—Mercantilism • High Tariffs, independent manufacturing • Drainage due to constant war

  8. Louis Cont. . . again • Daily Life for Louis’ Court: • Strict rules and demeaning chores for nobles • Constant entertainment • War: • Several small wars like War of League of Augsburg • War of Spanish Succession • Charles II (Spanish King-Habsburg) left throne to Grandson of Louis XIV (Philip V) • People don’t want a Bourbon in Spain and France so all go to war • Treaty of Ultrecht 1713 says Philip king but can’t join with France • Britain becomes powerful

  9. Peter the Great (1689-1725) • Westernization was his goal! Portrayed as a barbarian • Political leaders expected to gain a Western education • Learn European language • Beard tax and new dress • Russian Navy • Noble mobility with Table of Ranks • Conscription of landholders • Controlled church with Procurator (Russian Orthodox) Holy Synod

  10. Changes in art • Mannerism: (1520s-30s-1600s) • Wanted to reflect the uncertainty of the time by rejecting Renaissance methods of balance, harmony, proportion • Demonstrates emotion and anxiety • El Greco– the Laocoon

  11. Baroque art • Baroque Art (end of the 16th C) • Popular among the Catholic Reform movement (Habsburgs) • Classical ideals of Renaissance art with problems of the times • Dramatic effects to arouse emotion • Demonstrated power in architexture • Peter Rubens • Gian Bernini • Artemisia Gentileschi 476-477

  12. English Revolution • Tudor-Stuart family change • James I: 1603-1625 • Stuart line from Scotland • Not very knowledgeable about English customs • Divine Right of Kings-alienates Parliament • Ticks off Puritans when he keeps bishops instead of presbyters

  13. Charles I • Charles I (son of James I ) • Parliament submits the Petition of Rights • Charles rejects it • Charles I dismisses Parliament. . . Bad move • Makes new taxes like ship tax (upsets coastal cities) • Marries catholic sister of Louis XIII and viewed as too Catholic • Angers Scotts by trying to have them accept Common Book of Prayer • In desperate need of money Charles calls Parliament

  14. Long Parliament and war • For the next 20 years (1640-1660) Parliament would enforce measures to limit the power of kings • Some MPs were content (Cavaliers) while others wanted to eliminate Bishops (roundheads) • Charles arrests some of the roundheads and starts the civil war • Parliament captures the king with the aid of the New Model Army

  15. Off with his head! • Cavaliers decide to put King back in charge but with a Presbyterian church and limited rule • Radicals want more when the two start to fight again King runs away but is captured • Jan. 30 1649 Oliver Cromwell, leader of the roundheads, dismisses cavaliers from Parliament (rump Parliament), convicts the king of treason, and has him executed

  16. The COmmonwealth • Rump Parliament eliminates monarchy and the House of Lords (upper house in parliament) and makes Cromwell the Commander in Chief. . . A king • Cromwell fights Levellers, Irish, Scotts, and more pg. 471 quote • Cromwell doesn’t like to play well with others so dismisses Parliament. . . Twice with the force of the New Model Army

  17. Charles II • When Oliver Cromwell dies in 1658 Parliament assembles and elects Charles II to be king. . . The son of Charles the I who they had beheaded? • More trouble with Charles in religion • Parliament wanted to make the country Anglican again • Charles refuses • Test Act trumps Charles and says need to be Anglican to hold important offices • Dismissal of Parliament in 1661 and division in the court • Whigs hate king • Torries like king

  18. James II • When Charles II dies his brother James II becomes king . . . As a Catholic • People want to kill him but realize he is old and has a Protestant daughter that would take over so feel like they should let it be • James II has a son by second wife who is Catholic!

  19. William of Orange • Parliament decides that they will give supplies to James II’s daughters, husband (a puritan) to scare away James II • Glorious Revolution works and no one is killed! • Bill of Rights 1689 • Constitutional Monarchy • Toleration Act gives freedom of religion to Puritans

  20. Reaction to English Rev. • Thomas Hobbes: • Leviathan claims that man gave over their rights to be governed and should not rebel (Social Contract) • John Locke: • Two Treatises of Government claimed in the Social Contract as well but claimed that there were natural rights and the government has the responsibility to protect those rights. If they do not they should be removed