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Vietnam War

Vietnam War

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Vietnam War

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  1. Vietnam War By: Stephen Korolyk

  2. Introduction All parts of the Vietnam War Background about the war how it ended

  3. Different names Vietnam war Second Indochina War Vietnam conflict

  4. About the war It occurred at Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia November 1, 1955 to April 30, 1975 It followed the first Indochina war Fought between - North Vietnam and Allies ( Communist) - South Vietnam and Allies ( Democracy)

  5. US enters the war Military advisors arrived in 1950 Involvement rose in 1960 Army tripled in 1961 and again in 1962

  6. Background of war until 1949 Treaty of Hue in 1884 had France rule Vietnam until after WWII Japan took them under the rule of Bao Dai

  7. During WWII they became allies of the Axis powers This stayed like this until the French booted the Germans out of France. Vietnam didn’t trust the French any more Japan then took them and they became the Empire of Vietnam.

  8. After WWII the UN, US, the SU agreed that Vietnam belonged to France France didn’t have the soldiers, ammo, or weapons to immediately retake it

  9. Britain then gave France the ammo they needed. • They also gave supplies to surrounding Japanese aid. • They helped France retake Vietnam.

  10. Ho Chi attempted to negotiate with the French. • French landed in Hanoi by March 1946. • This started the First Indochina War

  11. Japan was loosing until Communists China largely won the Chinese Civil war. • They helped provide supplies for Vietnam.

  12. Exit of the French • Communist nations were lead by the People’s Republic of China (PRC) • Their advisors began to help Viet Minh • They transformed them from a guerrilla force into a regular army

  13. September 1950- US created a Military Assistance and Advisory group (MAAG) • Used to help the French with: - aid - advice on strategy - train Vietnamese soldiers

  14. The French’s involvement with the war ended after the Battle of Dien Bien Phu • France was defeated • On May 7th 1954 France surrendered • Independence was granted to: - Cambodia - Laos - Vietnam

  15. Insurgency in the South • Hanoi lead communist in South Vietnam to begin a low level insurgency • 400 government officials were assassinated in 1957 • 20% of Vietnam’s village chiefs had been assassinated by insurgents in 1958

  16. During JFK in office 1961-1963 • JFK had a three part crisis: - failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion - construction of the Berlin Wall - settlement of the government of Laos and the Pathet Lao communist movement • On July 23 1962 14 nations: - Peoples Republic of China - South Vietnam - Soviet Union - North Vietnam - United States • signed an agreement promising the neutrality of Laos

  17. Coup and assassination • November 2 1963, Diem was overthrown and executed along with his brother • Hanoi took advantage of the situation and increased the support for the guerrillas • One government fell and another quickly succeeded

  18. Lyndon B. Johnson expands the war • Johnson reversed Kennedy’s policy and withdrew 1,000 troops • August 2nd, 1964 USS Maddox fired upon and damaged many torpedo boats • Another attack two days later on: - USS Turner Joy - USS Maddox

  19. Vietnam army was aprox. 5,000 soldiers • Vietnam army grew: - 1959- 100,000 soldiers - 1961 to 1964- 850,000 to 1 million soldiers • US troops deployed to Vietnam grew from 2,000 soldiers in 1961 to 16,500 soldiers in 1964

  20. March 2nd 1965 • operations: - Flaming Dart - Rolling Thunder - Arc Light

  21. Operation Rolling Thunder - Covered the North with millions of missiles rockets and bombs - Between March 1965 to November 1968 • Operation Commando Hunt - targeted the NLF and the Vietnam People’s Army (VPA) - objective: forcing North Vietnam’s support with the NLF - operation failed

  22. Escalation and ground war • March 8th, 1965 3,500 US marines were sent to Vietnam • This is the beginning of the American ground war • Increased to 200,000 in December • Communist made a hit-and-run guerrilla tactics • In Binh Gia they defeated a strong ARVN force in conventional warfare • Communist won another Battle of the Battle of Dong Xoai

  23. United State’s Plan • They had a three point plan: - Commitment of US to halt the losing trend by the end of 1965 - the forces seize the guerilla forces this will end when the enemy was warn down and driven back. - if phase two is not complete in 12 to 18 months they will need the final destruction of enemy forces

  24. Tet Offensive • This is when over 100 cities were attacked with assaults on General Westmoreland’s headquarters and the US Embassy, Saigon • It was the American turning point in Vietnam

  25. May 10th, 1968 America and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam began peace talks • Johnson stopped bombing Vietnam • Hubert Humphrey (Dem.) vs. Richard Nixon (Rep.)

  26. Vietnamization • Richard Nixon becomes President. • Nixon Doctrine- build up the ARVN so they could protect South Vietnam • Also known as Vietnamization • Oct. 10th, 1969 Nixon ordered a squadron of 18 B-52s loaded with nuclear weapons and attach the boarder to show the Soviet Union that he will do anything to end the war.

  27. Operation Menu: the secret bombing of Cambodia and Laos • Prince Norodom Sihanouk proclaimed Cambodia neutral since 1955 • His policy changed in 1969 when Vietnamese communists were no longer welcome • 1971, Pentagon papers were leaked into the New York Times • Supreme court said it was legal

  28. 1971 Australia and New Zealand withdrew their troops • Peace protests spread out across the US

  29. 1972 election • 1972 election - Nixon vs. McGovern VS

  30. Paris Peace Accords • They were signed on January 27, 1973 • Ended all U.S involvement in the Vietnam War

  31. Opposing to the Vietnam War:1962-1975 • It started to unite groups: - U.S - anti-communism - imperialism - colonialism • Opposition turned into street riots in effort to turn U.S political opinion

  32. Exit of the Americans: 1973-1975 • U.S dramatically retreated their support for South Vietnam during the final years of Vietnamization • The North was planning to attack the south during the 1975- 1976 dry season

  33. The north started to retake land from the south • President Theiew announced that the Paris Peace treaty was no longer in effect • Gerald Ford took over as U.S president on August 9th 1974 after Nixon’s Watergate scandal

  34. Campaign 275 • On March 10th 1975, General Dung launched Campaign 275 • this limited offensive into Central Highlands • Target: Ban Me Thuot in Daklak Provinence

  35. March 22nd VPA opened the siege of Hue • People flooded the airports and docks to escape • March 31st Hue fell

  36. Final North Vietnamese offensive • North with half of Vietnam, decided to head for Saigon • Ho Chi Minh campaigned for the fall of Saigon by May 1st

  37. The ARVN tried to make a last stand before they reached Saigon • They defended for two weeks • On April 21st they surrendered • President Thieu resigned the same day declaring that the U.S betrayed South Vietnam • April 27th 100,000 North Vietnamese soldiers encircled Saigon

  38. Fall of Saigon • Martial Law: American helicopters began evacuating people in Saigon • Operation Frequent Wind: evacuation of Saigon -largest helicopter evacuation in history • President Gerald Ford gave a televised speech declaring the end of the Vietnam War

  39. Countries involved in the war: - People’s Republic of China - South Korea - Australia - New Zealand - Philippines - Thailand - Soviet Union - North Korea - Canada and the ICC - Republic of China (Taiwan) - United States - North and South Vietnam

  40. Aftermath • Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, fell to the Communist party of Kampuchea on Apria 17th 1975 • Vietnam invaded Democratic Kampuchea and became the Cambodian-Vietnam War

  41. China invaded Vietnam in 1979 in a boarder war • Known as the Third Indochina War 1978-1979 • Path Lao overthrew the royalist government of Laos in December 1975

  42. Effect on the United States • Between 1965 and 1975 the United States spent $111 billion on the war • 3 million soldiers entered the war: - 58,193 soldiers were killed - 150,000 were wounded - 21,000 were permanently wounded • Many fled to Canada to avoid Vietnam draft

  43. Chemical defoliation • Rainbow Herbicides: - Agent Pink - Agent Green - Agent Purple - Agent Blue - Agent White • Mostly used Agent Orange

  44. Agent Orange • Made of Dixon • Over 20 million US gallons were sprayed over Southeast Asia • Caused birth defects

  45. Casualties • Vietnamese government in its military forces suffered 1.1 million and 600,000 wounded • Civilian deaths from Operation Rolling Thunder ranged from 52,000 to 182,000 • U.S military has estimated between 200,000 and 250,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died in the war

  46. The End