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An Overview of Belos and Anasazi October 16 th , 11-12am Heidi Thornquist Teri Barth Rich Lehoucq Mike Heroux Computatio PowerPoint Presentation
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An Overview of Belos and Anasazi October 16 th , 11-12am Heidi Thornquist Teri Barth Rich Lehoucq Mike Heroux Computatio

An Overview of Belos and Anasazi October 16 th , 11-12am Heidi Thornquist Teri Barth Rich Lehoucq Mike Heroux Computatio

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An Overview of Belos and Anasazi October 16 th , 11-12am Heidi Thornquist Teri Barth Rich Lehoucq Mike Heroux Computatio

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  1. An Overview of Belosand AnasaziOctober 16th, 11-12amHeidi ThornquistTeri BarthRich LehoucqMike HerouxComputational Mathematics and Algorithms Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company,for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Outline • Background • AztecOO and ARPACK • Solver design requirements • Belos and Anasazi • Current Status • Current Development • Teuchos • Arbitrary precision BLAS • Concluding remarks

  3. Background • Several iterative linear solver / eigensolver libraries exist: • PETSc, SLAP, LINSOL, Aztec(OO), … • LOBPCG (hypre), ARPACK, … • None are written in C++ • None of the linear solver libraries can efficiently deal with multiple right-hand sides • Current eigensolver libraries offer one algorithm for solving symmetric/non-symmetric eigenproblems

  4. AztecOO Linear Solver Library • A C++ wrapper around Aztec library written in C. • Algorithms: GMRES, CG, CGS, BiCGSTAB, TFQMR. • Offers status testing capabilities. • Output verbosity level can be determined by user. • Uses Epetra to perform underlying vector space operations. • Interface to matrix-vector product is defined by the user through the EpetraOperator.

  5. ARnoldi PACKage (ARPACK) • Written in Fortran 77. • Algorithms: Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi/Lanczos • Static convergence tests. • Output formatting, verbosity level is determined by user. • Uses LAPACK/BLAS to perform underlying vector space operations. • Offers abstract interface to matrix-vector products through reverse communication.

  6. Generic programming Some design requirements for Linear Solvers /Eigensolvers • Abstract interface to an operator-vector product (Op(A)v) and preconditioning (if necessary). • Ability to allow the user to enlist any linear algebra package for the elementary vector space operations essential to the algorithm • Ability to allow the user to define convergence of any algorithm (a.k.a. status testing). • Ability to allow the user to determine the verbosity level, formatting, and processor for the output.

  7. Status Test Generic Problem Interface Generic Linear Algebra Interface IO Manager Generic Algorithm AlgorithmA( … ) while ( myStatusTest.GetStatus(…) != converged ) … … % Compute operator-vector product myProblem.ApplyOp(NOTRANS,v,w);  = w.dot(v); … end myIO.print(something); return (solution); end

  8. Benefits of Generic Programming • Generic programming techniques ease the implementation of complex algorithms. • Developing algorithms with generic programming techniques is easier on the developer, while still allowing them to build a flexible and powerful software package. • Generic programming techniques also allow the user to leverage their existing software investment.

  9. New Packages: Belos and Anasazi • Next generation linear solvers (Belos) and eigensolvers (Anasazi) libraries, written in templated C++. • Provide a generic interface to a collection of algorithms for solving large-scale linear problems and eigenproblems. • Algorithm implementation is accomplished through the use of abstract base classes. Interfaces are derived from these base classes to operator-vector products, status tests, and any arbitrary linear algebra library. • Includes block linear solvers (GMRES, CG, etc.) and eigensolvers (IRAM, etc.). • Release: Spring/Summer 2004

  10. Why are Block Solvers Useful?(from an applications point of view) • Block Eigensolvers ( Op(A)X = X ): • Block Linear Solvers ( Op(A)X = B ): • Reliably determine multiple and/or clustered eigenvalues. • Example applications: • Stability analysis • Bifurcation analysis (LOCA) • Useful for when multiple solutions are required for the same system of equations. • Example applications: • Perturbation analysis • Optimization problems • Single right-hand sides where A has a handful of small eigenvalues • Inner-iteration of block eigensolvers

  11. Why are Block Solvers Useful?(from a computational point of view) • Remember: These are iterative solvers! • Solutions for block solvers are obtained through operator-multivector computations (Op(A)V). • However, single-vector iterative solvers use operator-vector computations (Op(A)v). • What’s the difference? BLAS Performance • Op(A)v is Level 1 • Op(A)V is Level 2

  12. Current Status(Trilinos Release 3.2d) • Belos: • Solvers: BlockCG and BlockGMRES • Interfaces are defined for Epetra and NOX/LOCA • BelosEpetraOperator allows for integration into other codes • Epetra interface accepts EpetraOperators, so can be used with ML, AztecOO, Ifpack, Belos, etc… • Block size is independent of number of right-hand sides • Anasazi: • Solver: Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi • Interfaces are defined for Epetra and NOX/LOCA • Can solve standard and generalized eigenproblems • Epetra interface accepts EpetraOperators, so can be used with Belos, AztecOO, etc… • Block size is independent of number of requested eigenvalues

  13. Current Belos/Anasazi Development • LinearSolver / Eigensolver Class • LinearProblem / Eigenproblem Class • StatusTest Class • IOManager Class • Incorporate parameter lists ( developed in Teuchos ). • Replace current Belos/Anasazi abstract linear algebra classes with TSFCore abstract linear algebra classes.

  14. Current Belos/Anasazi DevelopmentLinearSolver / Eigensolver Class • Provide an abstract interface to Belos/Anasazi solvers. • Methods: • Set Methods: SetProblem, SetParameters, SetStatusTester • Get Methods: GetProblem, GetParameters, GetStatusTester, currIteration • Solve Methods: Solve, Iterate • Auxilliary Method(s): Reset

  15. Belos Allows preconditioning, scaling, etc. to be removed from the algorithm. Methods: Set Methods: SetOperator, SetLHS, SetRHS, SetL/RScale, SetL/RPrecond Get Methods: GetOperator, GetLHS, GetRHS, GetL/RPrecond Query Methods: IsL/RPrecond Apply Methods: ApplyOperator Anasazi Differentiates between standard and general eigenvalue problems. Allows spectral transformations to be removed from the algorithm. Methods: Set Methods: SetInitVec, SetOperator, SetMatrixA, SetMatrixB Get Methods: GetInitVec, GetOperator, GetMatrixA, GetMatrixB, GetEvals, GetEvecs, GetResids Apply Methods: ApplyOperator, ApplyMatrixA, ApplyMatrixB IP/Norm Methods: AInProd, BInProd, BMvNorm Current Belos/Anasazi DevelopmentLinearProblem / Eigenproblem Class

  16. Current Belos/Anasazi DevelopmentStatusTest Class • Similar to NOX / AztecOO. • Allows user to decide when solver is finished. • Multiple criterion can be logically connected. • Abstract base class methods: • StatusType CheckStatus( int currIteration, LinearProblem<Scalar>& myProblem ); • StatusType CheckStatus( int currIteration, Eigenproblem<Scalar>& myProblem ); • StatusType GetStatus() const; • ostream& Print( ostream& os ) const; • Derived classes • Maximum iterations/restarts, residual norm, combinations {AND,OR}, …

  17. Current Belos/Anasazi DevelopmentIOManager Class • Allows user to control I/O processor, precision, and verbosity. • Methods: • Set Methods: • void reset(Teuchos::ParameterList& myIOParams ); • Query Methods: • bool isPrintProc() const; • bool isPrintLevel() const; • bool isPrintProcLevel() const; • Output Methods: overload “<<“ operator using given precision.

  18. Belos CG/FCG GMRES/FGMRES BiCGSTAB Anasazi LOBPCG Restarted Preconditioned Eigensolver (RPE) Generalized Davidson Future Belos/Anasazi Algorithms

  19. Belos Preprocessing capabilities (CG) User determined Krylov-subspace breakdown tolerances Anasazi Preprocessing capabilties User determined sorting User determined Krylov-subspace breakdown tolerances Future Belos/Anasazi Features

  20. Belos / Anasazi Development(audience participation) • Are there any capabilities you may need from a linear/eigensolver that have not been addressed? • Do you have any questions, comments, or suggestions about the proposed user interface? • Are there any other solvers that you think would be useful?

  21. Teuchos • Optional, lightweight utility package • Takes advantage of advanced features of C++: • Templates • Standard Template Library (STL) • Planned features: • Parameter list of arbitrary types (NOX) • Memory management package and error-handler (TSFCoreUtils) • Templated interfaces to BLAS, LAPACK, dense matrix (TPetra) • Command line and XML parsers, random number generators, and timers (TSF)

  22. BLAS • Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines • Robust, high-performance dense vector-vector, matrix-vector, and matrix-matrix routines • Written in Fortran • Fast and efficient • Fortran is highly portable; however, the interface between it and C++ is platform-dependent • Templated C++ wrappers for the BLAS Fortran routines are created through autoconf. • Two main benefits of using a templated interface • Template Specialization: template specialization can be used to support the four native datatypes of existing Fortran BLAS code • General Implementation: a generic C++ implementation can be created to handle many arbitrary datatypes

  23. Arbitrary Datatypes • Any datatype that defines zero, one, addition, subtraction, and multiplication can use nearly all BLAS functions • Some require square root or division • Example: ARPREC • arbitrary precision library that uses arrays of 64-bit floating-point numbers to represent high-precision floating-point numbers. • ARPREC values behave just like any other floating-point datatype, except the maximum working precision (in decimal digits) must be specified before any calculations are done mp::mp_init(200); • Illustrate the use of ARPREC with an example using Hilbert matrices.

  24. Hilbert Matrices • A Hilbert matrix HN is a square N-by-N matrix such that: • Notoriously ill-conditioned • κ(H3) 524 • κ(H5) 476610 • κ(H10) 1.6025 x 1013 • κ(H20) 7.8413 x 1017 • κ(H100) 1.7232 x 1020 • Theoretically, Hilbert matrices are SPD

  25. Cholesky Factorization and Hilbert Matrices • In practice, floating-point rounding error causes higher-order Hilbert matrices to no longer be positive definite • Cholesky factorization is often done to determine whether or not a given matrix is positive definite • As such, a Cholesky factorization will often fail on higher-order Hilbert matrices, even though such matrices “should” be positive definite

  26. Cholesky Factorization and Hilbert Matrices • In addition to providing a higher limit on N, using arbitrary precision reduces error. • By solving the linear system: where the vector b is constructed such that the true solution x is equal to a 1-vector we can look at the forward error.

  27. Templated BLAS Conclusions • Adding a templated interface to the BLAS allows the use of arbitrary datatypes • This is useful in particular for the inclusion of arbitrary-precision arithmetic • Such arithmetic may be expensive, but the increased precision may be required for ill-conditioned problems • Arbitrary-precision arithmetic can be used in only the places where it is needed most in order to retain speed • Templated tools libraries are essential for the development of templated solver libraries.