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Museum Box Project

Museum Box Project . The Bourbon Triumvirate (p. 312 – 314). Democrats controlled Georgia’s government after Reconstruction between the years of 1872-1890. Powerful Democratic leaders, known as the “Bourbon Triumvirate” were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon.

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Museum Box Project

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  1. Museum Box Project

  2. The Bourbon Triumvirate (p. 312 – 314) • Democrats controlled Georgia’s government after Reconstruction between the years of 1872-1890. • Powerful Democratic leaders, known as the “Bourbon Triumvirate” were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon. • Their goals were: • expand Georgia’s economy and ties with industries in the North; • maintain the tradition of white supremacy.

  3. The Bourbon Triumvirate (p. 312-314) • Joseph E. Brown • Governor (4 terms) Civil War Governor • Chief Justice of the Ga. Supreme Court • U.S. Senator 1880-1891 • Alfred H. Colquitt • Military Leader (Major General) • Governor 1876-1882 (Reduced state debt and new constitution written 1877) • John B. Gordon • Lieutenant General (only 3 in Ga.) • Popular speaker • U.S. Senator 1872 • Governor 1886 (two terms)

  4. The Bourbon Triumvirate (p. 312-314) • Ideas they had in common • White Supremacy- The belief that the white race is superior to any other race. • Lowered taxes • Reduced war debt (Civil War) • Expanded business and industry (helped change Ga. from an “agricultural” state to an “industrial” state by bringing in textile mills) • Criticized for these problems • Not helping the poor • Not improving education • Poor factory conditions • Poor conditions in mental hospitals • Poor jail conditions

  5. Henry Grady (p. 318) • Challenged the Bourbon Triumvirate- wanted Georgia to be more industrialized. • Henry Grady was a speaker and newspaper editor. • Influential in Georgia between 1871- 1887 • Grady described Georgia as a place which could have competitive industry and more efficient farming. • Replaced agriculture by bringing new industry to Ga. • Made African-Americans part of this growth • Helped plan International Cotton Exposition which brought numerous Northern Investors to the South. • Brought investors ($) and jobs to Ga. • Helped the Atlanta Constitution circulation go from 10,000 to 140,000

  6. International Cotton Exposition (p. 361) • Was a 3 month exposition held in Georgia in 1895. • 6,000 exhibits • Many visitors came to Ga. • Showed off new machinery used in cotton production. • The Purpose was to: • Show how cotton was made into a marketable product • Show off the economic recovery of the South • Bring Northern investors (money) to Georgia. • To highlight Georgia’s Natural Resources.

  7. Rebecca Latimer Felton (p. 315 -316) • Independent Democrat who was against the Bourbon Triumvirate • Said that Ga. Democrats ignored the poor and middle class • Stated her views through her family-owned newspaper • Involved in the Women’s Suffrage movement (trying to help women get the right to vote) • Involved in the Temperance Movement • Women and Men against alcohol abuse • Leader of the temperance movement. • Columnist for Atlanta Journal for 41 years • Prison Reform- Wanted to ensure people were obeying the rules of the Convict Lease System (p. 315). Best Remembered for: She was the first woman in the U.S. Senate (she only served one day at the age of 87)

  8. Tom Watson and the Populists (p. 346 -348) • Members of labor organizations joined to form a new political party called the People’s Party. It was usually called the Populist Party. • Wanted to make life easier for the “common man” (all colors) • Bring reform in agriculture • Elected to General Assembly (Ga. state legislature) as a Democrat (supported by all people) • Became a Populist(of the people)-Elected to U.S. House of Representatives • Passing RFD (Rural Free Delivery Bill) • This bill meant that rural farm families would now have their mail delivered to their homes for free. • Took several years to put into place, but farm families no longer had to travel to the nearest post office for their mail. • His views on Civil Rights “did a 180” • Early in his career, Watson wanted to help all people, especially African-Americans, sharecroppers, and tenant farmers. • Later in his career, Watson opposed all minorities, African-Americans, Catholics, and Jews.

  9. Jim Crow Laws (p. 351 -352) • Laws made by states and cities to segregate (keep separate) the African-Americans and whites • Separate-but-equal facilities for everything • People could be punished for “consorting” with members of another race • Intermarriage was illegal • Businesses and public institutions were told to keep their black and white clientele separated

  10. Jim Crow Laws (p. 351- 352) “Separate but Equal” African-Americans: • Kept them from voting • They had inferior facilities • Made them feel they were not good enough Whites: • Segregation (separation of the races)-was the way of life • Made whites feel superior

  11. Plessy v. Ferguson (p. 352) • 1890 Separate Car Act-RR companies must furnish separate-but-equal passenger coaches for coloreds and whites • Penalty for sitting in wrong compartment was a fine of $25 or 20 days in jail • Plessy sat in white coach and was arrested • Plessy’s lawyer said the Separate Car Act violated the 13 and 14 amendments • Plessy found guilty • Case was known as ”Separate-but-equal” ruling • Georgia/other southern states continued “separate-but-equal” in all forms of daily life. • This Supreme Court gave the new “black codes” called Jim Crow Laws, a legal right to be enforced if violated by African Americans.

  12. Booker T. Washington (p. 353- 354) • Born a slave-raised as son of former sharecroppers • Civil rights leader • College professor and president of Tuskegee Institute (Alabama) • Gave speech at the International Cotton States Exposition – “Atlanta Compromise Speech” 1895 • Proposed that blacks and whites should agree to benefitfrom each other economically • Blacks and whites did not have to mix socially • Blacks should not push for equal rights but workto improve themselves - learn a skill (common labor was dignified) - become self-sufficient • Whites should trust black people and give them opportunities to work

  13. W.E.B. Dubois (p. 355- 356) • Grew up in FREE state of Massachusetts • Civil rights leader • Professor at Atlanta University • Wanted and pushed for social and political integration of races. Wanted equal rights for all citizens • Felt Washington’s ideas would keep blacks in a position that was lower than whites. • Wanted higher education for 10% of the black population (“Talented Tenth”) so they could become leaders for all other blacks. • Organized the Niagara Movement to end Jim Crow laws- This movement was made of a group of black educators and professionals. Later became known as the NAACP. • helped found the National Association for theAdvancement of Colored People (NAACP)

  14. 1906 Atlanta Riot (p. 358) • Newspaper articles, written by important business men like Tom Watson, spread reports about African-Americans inappropriate interactions with white women and alcohol abuse (some true/some not) • The increase in population put pressure on municipal services, increased job competition among black and white workers, heightened class distinctions, and led the city's white leadership to respond with restrictions intended to control the daily behavior of the growing working class, with mixed success. • Riot lasted 2-3 days • Martial law (military rule) needed to bring Atlanta under control • 18 African-Americans killed, 3 whites killed, hundreds injured • High cost of property damage (buildings burned and destroyed) • Hurt race relations

  15. Racial Violence • Threat of racial violence was used to stop African Americans from voting or getting more power • KKK used violence such as beatings, burnings, and lynchings to enforce segregation • Lynching became common practice of the racial extremists; particularly the KKK. • A lynching is an illegal hanging, usually by mobs, or burning at the stake of African Americans in the United States.

  16. Leo Frank (p. 359 -360) • 1915 • Northern Jew managed pencil factory • Accused of killing 13 year old-Mary Phagan • Found guilty, sentenced to death • Governor of Georgia Slaton commuted his sentence to life in prison • A group of prominent men (ex governor, mayor, judge, lawyers, business owners) took Leo Frank from his cell in Milledgeville, drove him to Marietta, and hung him from a tree in front of Mary Phagan’s house. • Rebirth of the KKK (Ku Klux Klan) This was a huge “setback” in Civil Rights Other results: • Governor had to leave state • Prominent men became “vigilantes” • People started thinking about “child labor” laws

  17. John & Lugenia Burns Hope • Believed that black people should have the samequality programs as whites • John Hope was president of Atlanta BaptistCollege (Morehouse) • Was a friend of W.E.B DuBois and helped foundthe National Association for the Advancement ofColored People (NAACP) • Lugenia Hope fought for good housing, healthcare, jobs and recreational programs for blacks in Atlanta and the United States • Helped organize the Boys and Girls Club in Atlanta • Organized Neighborhood Union -to improve living conditions for black people

  18. County Unit System • 1917 Main political party in Georgia was the Democratic party • County Unit System established by the McNeill PrimaryAct • The 38 larger counties had 2/3 of the voters • The other 121 smaller counties had 1/3 of the voters • Using the County Units, the smaller counties with only 1/3 of the voters could win an election • Candidates could win an election without a majority ofthe votes • CUS was declared “Unconstitutional” and ended in 1962

  19. Alonzo Herndon • Born a slave • Black businessman who owned manybarbershops and later bought a small insurance company and owned over 100 houses (for rentals) • Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company - hired black college graduates to run the company • Now called the Atlanta Life Insurance Company and is one of the largest African American owned businesses in the USA

  20. Disfranchisement • Right to vote granted by 15th amendment • Southern states made it difficult for African-American men to vote • 1900-47% of Georgia was AA • Grandfather clause-only men whose grandfathers voted in 1867 were allowed to vote • Poll tax-tax to be able to vote • Literacy test-had to be able to read • Gerrymander- to draw up the voting district to benefit a certain group

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