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Intro to biology video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VgTPg99V_JM. Lab safety video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJG0ir9nDtc. Lab Safety: A list of lab safety rules are found: Attached to your syllabus (to be signed by you and a parent/guardian) In green note packet (page 5-6).
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Intro to biology video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VgTPg99V_JM
Lab safety video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJG0ir9nDtc
Lab Safety: • A list of lab safety rules are found: • Attached to your syllabus (to be signed by you and a parent/guardian) • In green note packet (page 5-6)
Lab #1 “Recognizing lab safety” Complete the map of the classroom on the second page. Finish the rest of the lab at home.
Use this to start Lab #1. Page 2 of the lab wants you to draw the classroom and label the location of important lab safety equipment. Classroom door (222 to hallway) Classroom door (O’Handley) * Not to be used Classroom door (life skills) * Not to be used Science prep. NO ENTRY Windows
Scientific method Biochemistry The Life of Cells Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Genetics/DNA Evolution Plants Reproduction Animal Form and Function Ecology In Honors Bio what are we going to learn about?
Adaptations Biology Cell Community Control Ecosystem Hypothesis Inference Molecule Natural selection Observation Organ systems Organism Organs Population Species Theory Tissues Chapter 1Introduction: The Scientific Study of Life
Life starts here Biology- study of life Biology is organized into levels
Scientists have 2 main ways to learn about the world around them: • 1- Discovery science • Observing and measuring data • Inductive reasoning- creates a general principle from large amounts of specific data (specific to general) • 2- Hypothesis-driven science • Discovery science often leads to hypothesis-driven science • Scientific method • Deductive reasoning- using general principles to reach specific data (general to specific)
Observations & Inferences • Observations: • Description of objects, events • May include data from all five senses (touch, smell, taste, sight, sound) • Could be drawings, diagrams, written words • Do not include opinions.
Observations & Inferences • Inferences • Drawing conclusions based on observations • Often provide a reason for the event/object being observed. • An inference is when you make an assumption or prediction about something that you observe
Let’s practice making inferences! The next three slides show some fossil imprints that were found during a archeological dig. We’re going to record some observations and then make some inferences about what may have happened millions of years ago….
THeories & Laws In layman’s terms, if something is said to be “just a theory,” it usually means that it is a mere guess, or is unproved. It might even lack credibility. But in scientific terms, a theory implies that something has been proven and is generally accepted as being true.
Theories A theory may be formed after many related hypotheses have been tested and supported with experimental evidence A broad and comprehensive statement of what is thought to be true Supported by considerable evidence Ties together related hypotheses
THeories • Explanation of a set of related observations or events based upon proven hypotheses. • Verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers. • One scientist cannot create a theory, he/she can only create a hypothesis. • Examples: The theory of evolution, the theory of relativity, and the theory of plate tectonics.
Laws • A Statement of fact that concisely explains an action or group of actionse.g. Law of Gravity • Accepted to be true • Universal • May be expressed as a math equatione.g. E=mc2
similarities • Both a scientific theory and a scientific law are accepted to be true by the scientific community as a whole. • Both are used to make predictions of events. • Both are used to advance technology.
Differences • A theory is much more complex and dynamic. • A law governs a single action, whereas a theory explains a whole series of related phenomena.
Theories & Laws • An analogy can be made using a slingshot and an automobile. • A scientific law is like a slingshot. A slingshot has but one moving part--the rubber band. If you put a rock in it and draw it back, the rock will fly out at a predictable speed, depending upon the distance the band is drawn back.
Theories & Laws • An automobile has many moving parts, all working in unison to perform the chore of transporting someone from one point to another point. An automobile is a complex piece of machinery. Sometimes, improvements are made to one or more component parts. A new set of spark plugs that are composed of a better alloy that can withstand heat better, for example, might replace the existing set. But the function of the automobile as a whole remains unchanged.
Theories & Laws • A theory is like the automobile. Components of it can be changed or improved upon, without changing the overall truth of the theory as a whole.
Observation Employing your five senses to perceive objects or events
Asking a Question Based on observations; one or more questions are generated
Forming a Hypothesis A statement is testable if evidence can be collected that either does or doesn’t support it It can never be proven beyond doubt Often must be refined and revised or discarded
The Hypothesis --- Is a statement made in advance that states the results that will be obtained from testing the hypothesis Often written in the form of an “if-then” statement
Experimenting Testing a hypothesis or prediction by gathering data under controlled conditions– conducting a controlled experiment Based on a comparison of a control group with an experimental group
Both groups are identical except for one factor (independent variable) • Observations and measurements are taken for a particular factor (dependent variable) in both groups • Driven by or results from independent variable
Measuring • Involves quantitative data that can be measured in numbers &/or qualitative data information that isn’t numbers • Sampling • Technique of using a sample – a small part – to represent the entire population
Organizing Data Involves placing observations and measurement (data) in order Graphs, charts, tables, or maps
Analyzing Data Collected and organized data must be analyzed Process of determining whether data are reliable or whether they support or do not support a hypothesis or prediction
Conclusion Conclusions are made on the basis of facts, not observations Often drawn from data gathered from a study or experiment Should support the hypothesis Should be re-testable
Communication Scientists must share the results of their studies with other scientists (peers) Publish findings in journals Present their findings at scientific meetings Scientists must be unbiased Should not tamper with their data Only publish & report tested & proven ideas
Communication • Sharing of information is essential to scientific process • Subject to examination and verification by other scientists • Allows scientists to build on the work of others
Only one variable is being tested a one time Controlled Experiments
Variables are parts of an experiment What is a Variable?
What is a Variable? • Controlled variables (constants): • factors in an experiment that are NOT changed. • same for all groups being tested
Manipulated (independent) variable: • factors in an experiment that are changed. • Always the “if” part of the “if-then” hypothesis
Responding (dependent) variable: the factor that you are measuring. • Always the “then” part of the “if-then” hypothesis
Experiment: The affect of temperature on goldfish respiration. What are all the variables?
There are two groups in a controlled experiment: 1) Experimental Group: the part of the experiment in which a factor or variable is changed. Controlled Experiments
2) Control Group: the part of the experiment that is left alone or “natural”. Used to compare back to. Controlled Experiments