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Warm Up PowerPoint Presentation

Warm Up

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Warm Up

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  1. Warm Up • Get out HW • Copy down HW • After Quiz pick up the article off of the overhead • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uoKkpLL10xw

  2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uoKkpLL10xw • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2MKNsI5CWoU

  3. Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior

  4. Neural Communication • Biological/neuroscience Psychology • branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior • Want a better understanding of sleep and dreams, depression and schizophrenia, hunger, sex, stress and disease

  5. Neural Communication • Neuron • a nerve cell • the basic building block of the nervous system • Dendrite • the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body • Brings in info

  6. Axon • the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands • Myelin [MY-uh-lin] Sheath • a layer of fatty cells that encase the fibers of many neurons • Speeds up neutral impulses • MS

  7. Neural Communication • Action Potential • a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge (Ion) that travels down an axon • Outside the Axon= positive ions • Inside the Axon= negative ions • Even positive and negative= resting potential, which acts like a gate . • Depolarization= unfreezes or ungates the axon allowing the message to go through • Refractory period= resting period, when extra atoms are pushed out • Some signals excite and some inhibit

  8. Threshold • the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse • All or nothing

  9. Neural Network

  10. Neural Communication • Synapse • junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron • tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft • Neurotransmitters • chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons • Excite or inhibit • Lock and key • Reuptake

  11. Neurotransmitters • Each pathway uses different neurotransmitters, each neurotransmitter has a different function • Acetylcholine ( ACH) - muscle contraction, learning and memory • Alzheimer's • Endorphins- • “morphine within” • natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters • linked to pain control and to pleasure • Dopamine- alertness and movement • Parkinson's • schizophrenia

  12. Neurotransmitters • Serotonin- mood, hunger,sleep and arousal • depression • Norepinephrine- controls alertness and arousal • Gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA)- inhibitory neurotransmitter • Glutamate- A major excitatory neruo., memory • Migraines • Seizures

  13. Dopamine pathways

  14. How Drugs Effect Neurotransmitters • Many drugs mimic the neurotransmitter • Agonists excite • Antagonists inhibit

  15. Neurotransmitter molecule Receiving cell membrane Agonist mimics neurotransmitter Receptor site on receiving neuron Antagonist blocks neurotransmitter

  16. The Nervous System

  17. Nervous system Peripheral Central (brain and spinal cord) Autonomic (controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands) Skeletal (controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles) Sympathetic (arousing) Parasympathetic (calming) The Nervous System

  18. The Nervous System • The Nervous System • Body’s communication system • 2 parts- Central and Peripheral • The Nervous System uses 3 types of neurons • 1. Sensory • 2. Interneurons • 3. Motor neurons

  19. Central Nervous System

  20. Peripheral Nervous System

  21. A. Central nervous system B. Peripheral nervous system B1. Somatic nervous system B2. Autonomic nervous system 1. Cerebrum 2. Brainstem 3. Cerebellum 4. Spinal cord A. Central nervous system B. Peripheral nervous system B1. Somatic nervous system B2. Autonomic nervous system 1. Cerebrum 2. Brainstem 3. Cerebellum 4. Spinal cord A. Central nervous system B. Peripheral nervous system B1. Somatic nervous system B2. Autonomic nervous system 1. Cerebrum 2. Brainstem 3. Cerebellum 4. Spinal cord A. Central nervous system B. Peripheral nervous system B1. Somatic nervous system B2. Autonomic nervous system 1. Cerebrum 2. Brainstem 3. Cerebellum 4. Spinal cord

  22. The Peripheral System • 2 components • 1. Somatic Nervous System- controls our skeletal muscles • 2.Autonomic Nervous System- glands,muscles of our internal organs • Heartbeat, digestion, hormones • 1. Sympathetic Nervous System- defense actions ( increases heartbeat, muscles contract…..) • 2. Parasympathetic- it conserves energy

  23. Central Nervous System ( CNS) • Spinal Cord and Brain • Spinal Cord connects peripheral system to the brain • Reflexes

  24. Brain Sensory neuron (incoming information) Interneuron Motor neuron (outgoing information) Muscle Spinal cord Skin receptors

  25. The Brain

  26. Warm Up • Get out HW- Vocab Terms and Football scenarios • 2nd pd- get out notes • Write down hw • Fill in notebook • 14-Title Page- ch 2 • 15- Essay Sheet • 16 Brain Project • 17- Notes ch 2 • 18- Activity sheet • 19- Vocab sheet ch 2

  27. Warm Up • Group Up • Get out homework • 5-10 mins to talk about build a brain • Write down hw • Check grade

  28. Warm Up Get out HW ( Superheros) and put on page 20 HW- prepare for build a brain http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TSu9HGnlMV0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Li5nMsXg1Lk&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhvsooziEcw

  29. Tools of Discovery • Manipulating the brain – • Lesions • electromagnetic charges • chemical and magnetic stimulation • Clinical Observations - looking at damaged brains • Recording Electrical Activity EEG ( electroencephslogram) • an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface

  30. EEG

  31. Tools of Discovery • Neuroimaging- • CT ( Computed tomography) Scan- • X- Ray photographs • PET ( Positron emission tomography) Scan • Looks at sugar glucose to determine brain activity • “HOT SPOTS” • MRI- ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging) • generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.

  32. PET Scan

  33. PET Scan

  34. MRI

  35. The Brain

  36. Lower Level Brain Structure

  37. Lower Brain Lower Brain- • performs life saving operations freeing the higher brain regions to think, dream, memorize.. • We are unaware of most of its functions

  38. Lower Level Brain StructureThe Brainstem • Brainstem- • where spinal cord enters the skull • Crossover point for nerves • responsible for automatic survival functions • Medulla- Heartbeat and breathing

  39. Lower Level Brain StructureThe Brainstem 3. Reticular Formation- • Filter and relay station • Controls arousal 4. Thalamus- • Sensory input station,except smell • Receives higher brains replies • Controls electrical cycles. Slows during sleep;speeds up while awake

  40. Lower Level Brain StructureThe Brainstem • 5. The Cerebellum • Coordinates voluntary movements • Balancing, walking………. • Nonverbal voluntary movement • 6. Pons • Regulates sleep

  41. The Limbic System