Warm-up • Tall spires reach toward the sky. Gorgeous stained-glass windows feature rich colors. Sculptures and carvings of people, plants, and animals seem to be everywhere. Amazing flying buttresses-masses of stonework or brickwork attached to the walls-help hold the building up. • What is this passage describing and why would that be important to the time period we are studying?
Chapter 14, Section 2 The Church and the Rise of Cities
Religious and Economic Power • Nearly all people were Roman Catholic during the middle ages • Believed if you lived according to the Church teachings you would enjoy the rewards of heaven when you died • Economic Power: Collected taxes from its members Took fiefs from lords in exchange for services performed by clergy Clergy: People with authority to perform religious services • The Church became the largest land owner during the middle ages
Political Power of the Church • Took on many of the roles the government performs today Made laws, set up courts, excommunicated church members Excommunicate: being expelled from membership in the church or participation in church life Shunned if excommunicated (Can you think of examples where people have been excommunicated from something in our lives?) • Advisors to the kings and lords on political affairs Threat of excommunication gave church members great influence Used authority to limit feudal warfare Church required periods periods of truce and temporary peace What role do you think the Roman Catholic Church played in people’s daily lives?
Church Organization The church had power in every kingdom, fief, and every village
Church in Everyday Life • Clergy was present for almost every life event during the Middle Ages Birth of a child, serious illness, marriage, death • Clergy’s role was to bless life events, listen to people confess their sins in church (In the name of God, the clergy then forgave them for the wrongs to which they had confessed), and teach people how to live
Monasteries and Convents • Monastery: Religious home men lived in to dedicate their lives to god Monks: Men who lived in the monasteries • Convents: Religious homes women lived in to dedicate their lives to god Nuns: Women who lived in the convents • Monasticism: This is the name given to the life of the nuns and monks who live in monasteries and convents • Farming advances, schools, and sick people
Scholasticism • Church taught ideas must be accepted on faith • Some Christian scholars studied Greek that said people should use reason to discover the truth • Scholasticism: Tied the two theories together and used reason to support Christian beliefs
Revival of Trade • Crusaders were traveling to other places and bringing goods back to Europe • Europeans began demanding goods such as spices and cloth brought back from Africa and Asia • Historical trade routes began to be used again for trade (What major trade route could have been used?)
Growth of Towns • Trade fairs began to grow as the population grew • Town villages became large trade centers • Located along river crossings and highways (Why?) • Manors became overpopulated so lords allowed peasants to buy their freedom and move to the new growing towns (What impact would this have on the growing towns?)
Life in Towns and Cities • Economies were based on the exchange of money and goods unlike farms who relied on their crops • New class of people: merchants, traders, craft workers This new class of people was between the nobles and the peasants and was known as the middle class
guilds • Associations were created of an individual group of workers Weavers were a guild, blacksmiths were a guild • Guild: A group of people who all practice the same skill • Guilds created the prices on goods and would not allow outsiders to sell in the town markets • Members paid dues (association fee) and this money was used to help needy families or families of members who died • Apprentice: Unpaid worker being trained in a craft Lived with the master and worked for as many as seven years Guild officials judged that the journeyman’s work met standards
Disease • Towns were extremely overpopulated • Lack of sanitation bred disease Bubonic Plague: disease that wiped out 1/3 of Europe’s population between 1347 and 1351
Culture • Chivalry: code of honorable conduct by which knights were supposed to live by • Troubadours: Traveling poets and musicians