Warm up Does punishment really work with teens? If so, when is it most effective? Is there anything that might be more effective than punishment? What?
Learning & Operating Conditions Part I -Reinforcement & Punishment
Operating Conditioning • B.F. Skinner, behavioral psychologist • Show video • A behavior is learned in connection with reward or punishment • Any response that is followed by a reinforcement stimulus tends to be repeated
More about operant conditioning • Operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary” or operant behavior“. • Also looks at schedules of reinforcement - but that is Friday’s lesson.
Operant Conditioning Chamberaka “The Skinner Box” • Allowed him to explore the rate of response as a dependent variable. • Allowed him to develop his theory of schedules of reinforcement.
Operant Conditioning that… • Encourages behavior • Positive Reinforcement • Negative Reinforcement • Discourages Behavior • Positive Punishment • Negative Punishment
Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a favorable stimulus (commonly seen as pleasant) that increases the frequency of that behavior. In the Skinner box experiment, a stimulus such as food or sugar solution was delivered when the rat engaged in a target behavior.
Negative Reinforcement • Following a behavior by stopping or taking away something unpleasant • Reinforcer is unpleasant in some way – discomfort, fear, annoyance, social disapproval, etc. • In the Skinner box experiment, negative reinforcement was a loud noise continuously sounding inside the rat's cage until it engaged in the target behavior, such as pressing a lever, upon which the loud noise is removed.
Negative Punishment • Discouraging behaviour by following it with unpleasant consequences. • Also called “punishment by contingent withdrawal“. • Occurs when a behaviour (response) is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus, such as taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior, resulting in a decrease in that behavior. • Eg.- having your cell phone or car confiscated.
Positive Punishment • Discouraging a behavior by adding something that is not pleasurable. • Also called “Punishment by contingent stimulation“. • Occurs when a behaviour (response) is followed by an aversive stimulus (such as a song), which is not removed until there is a decrease in that behavior. • Eg. Having a chore added to your list of chores
Your Turn!!! • With a partner, come up with your own example for each of the following: • Positive Reinforcement • Negative Reinforcement • Positive Punishment • Negative Punishment
Let’s Share!!! • Share your examples with someone next to you to make sure they are correct • Read your example to the class. • Each group will decide what to label the example. • When an example is read, hold up the corresponding sign as to what your group thinks it is.