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Kelly Hayden

Kelly Hayden

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Kelly Hayden

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  1. Using GIS to Evaluate Erosion as a Potential Pathway for Nutrient Pollution in Little Kickapoo Creek, Illinois Kelly Hayden

  2. Background • Agriculture in Midwest is overloading streams with nutrients from fertilizers • Causes: surface runoff, tile drainage, groundwater flow, erosion • It’s creating a dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico • Currently it’s the size of New Jersey serc.carleton.edu

  3. Agricultural Erosion • Erosion of farmland contributes nutrients to streams • Fertilizers applied to cropland have high levels of nitrate and phosphate • Nitrate in groundwater and runoff • Phosphate binds to soil www.glc.org

  4. Urban Erosion • Urban erosion • Not many nutrients • Adds sediment to streams • Increased runoff causes bank failure • Channel cementation • Suspended sediment laep.ced.berkeley.edu/blakegarden

  5. Calculating watershed erosion risk • Many methods require extensive field data • Stream Power Index (SPI) • Uses GIS • Little data required • Fast • Inexpensive • Calculates overland flow • Identifies areas for erosion control • Evaluates management plans

  6. Previous studies • Cover et al, 2008 – used SPI as a guide to adjust an erosion model, evaluate erosion’s effect on fish • Pike et al, 2009 – assess erosion to establish prevention methods • Faivre et al, 2011 – stream morphology, formation of gullies during storm events • Galzki, 2009 – locate areas in agricultural watershed with high erosion, determine risk for nutrient loading

  7. Study location Little Kickapoo Creek (LKC) Located in central Illinois Location of thesis research

  8. The question • Is erosion a possible pathway for nutrient loading in LKC? • What is the extent of LKC and the LKC watershed? • What type of land cover is present in the watershed? And how might the land cover contribute to nutrient loading of LKC? • Where within the LKC watershed is there the highest potential for erosion?

  9. Methods • Data • DEM • Land cover • Calculating SPI • Flow direction and flow accumulation rasters • Delineate watershed • Slope • Raster calculator • SPI = flow accumulation * slope • LN[RawSPIraster] • Categorize • High numbers means high risk for erosion

  10. Results LKC watershed Starts in Bloomington Discharges to Kickapoo Creek in Randolph 76 km2

  11. Land cover

  12. Slope Red is high slope Green is low slope Slope is highest along the stream Can see the Bloomington End Moraine

  13. SPI High values are red Low values are green High values mean high risk for erosion

  14. SPI Removed low values to make it easier to see Areas of high erosion located along LKC Bloomington End Moraine increases erosion potential

  15. Discussion and conclusion • Urban erosion risk may not be accurately calculated by SPI • Need to observe condition of LKC in the urban area • Erosion in LKC watershed occurs along stream • Most of the stream flows through agricultural lands • High potential for nutrient contamination by erosion

  16. References Alexander, R. B., R. A. Smith, G. E. Schwarz, E. W. Boyer, J. V. Nolan, and J. W. Brakebill, 2008, Differences in Phosphorus and Nitrogen Delivery to the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River Basin: Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 42, p. 822-830. Arango, C. P., J. L. Tank, J. L. Schaller, T. V. Royer, M. J. Bernot, and M. B. David, 2007, Benthic organic carbon influences denitrification in streams with high nitrate concentration: Freshwater Biology, v. 52, p. 1210-1222. Baker, L. A., 2003, Introduction to nonpoint source pollution in the United States and prospects for wetland use: Ecological Engineering, v. 1, p. 1-26. Cover, M.R., May, C.L., Dietrich, W.E., and Resh, V.H., 2008, Quantitative linkages among sediment supply, streambed fine sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates in northern California streams: Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v. 27, i. 1, p. 135-149, doi: 10.1899/07–032.1 Dogwiler, T., Docker, D., and Omoth, D., 2010, Rush-pine creek watershed digital terrain analysis overview and procedure guidelines: WRC report 2010-02, Southeastern Minnesota Water Resource Center, Winona State University, Winona, MN, 22 p. Faivre, S., Pahernik, M., and Maradin, M., 2011, The gully of protovosca on the Island of Krk: The effects of a short-term rainfall event: GeologiaCroatica, v. 64, i. 1, p. 67-80, doi: 104154/gc.2011.07 Galzki, J. C., 2009, Identifying critical portions of the landscape for water quality protection using GIS terrain analysis, University of Minnesota. Graf, W. L., 1975, The impact of suburbanization on fluvial geomorphology: Water Resources Research, 11,690-692 Jordan, D.C. and Fonstad, M.A., 2005, Two Dimensional Mapping of River Bathymetry and Power Using Aerial Photography and GIS on the Brazos River, Texas: Geocarto International, v. 20, no. 3. Milevski, I., 2008, Estimation of soil erosion risk in the upper part of Bregalnica watershed, Republic of Macedonia, based on digital elevation model and satellite imagery: Proceedings from the 5th International conference on geographic information systems, Fatih University, Istanbul: 351-358. Mueller, D. K., and D. R. Helsel, 2009, Nutrients in the Nation's Waters--too much of a good thing?, USGS. Naidu, R., M. Megharaj, P. Dillon, R. Kookana, R. Correll, and W. Wenzel, 2006, Nonpoint Source Pollution, in R. Lal, ed., Encyclopedia of Soil Science, New York, Taylor & Francis Group, p. 1141-1144. Paul, M. J., and J. L. Meyer, 2001, Streams in the urban landscape. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32:333–365. Pike, A.S., Mueller, T.G., Schorgendorfer, A., Shearer, S.A., and Karathanasis, A.D., 2009, Erosion Index Derived from terrain Attributes using Logistic Regression and neural Networks: Agronomy Journal, v. 101, i. 5. Pimentel, D., Harvey, C., Resosudarmo, P., Sinclair, K., Kurz, D., McNair, M., Christ, S. Shpritz, L., Fitton, L., Saffouri, R., and Blair, R., 1995, Environmental and Economic Costs of Soil Erosion and Conservation Benefits: Science, New Series, v. 267, no. 5201, p. 1117-1123. Schaller, J. L., T. V. Royer, M. B. David, and J. L. Tank, 2004, Denitrification associated with plants and sediments in an agricultural stream: North American Benthological Society, v. 23, p. 667-676. Turner, R.E. and Rabalais, N.N., 2003, Linking Landscape and Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin for 200 Years: BioScience, v. 53, no. 6. Wilson, J. P. and Gallant, J.C., 2000, Digital Terrain Analysis, in Wilson, John P. and Gallant, John C., eds., Terrain Analysis: Principles and Applications: New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p. 1-27.

  17. Questions?