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  1. "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Presentation title (IMPORT THROUGH MENU View or Insert -> Header & Footer)

  2. " To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Matthias Gerber, Reichle & De-Massari AG September, 2010

  3. STP vs. UTP Motivation STP vs. UTP - New application new demands - Susceptibility to disturbances ↗ - Marketing smog screen. "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  4. Modulation: e.g. PAM 16 12 Bit = 3 Pulses 4*t 1111 1110 1101 1100 1011 1010 1001 1000 0111 0110 0101 0100 0011 0010 0001 0000 U =0.13 V 1100 0010 1001 Bits PAM 16 Modulation Reduces signal bandwidth, increases susceptibility to noise 12 Bit = 12 Pulses t 1 0 U=2 V 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 NRZ Coding "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  5. 100Base-TX 1000Base-T 10GBase-T 0.13V 0.5V 1.0V 1.7V 62 MHz 417 MHz 31 MHz MLT-3 125 MSymbols/s PAM 5 125 MSymbols/s PAM 16 800 MSymbols/s Development signal strength senders 10Base-T 1V 10 MHz Signal Level 0V Spectral Bandwidth -1V Manchester Coding 20 MSymbols/s "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  6. 0.27V 50x 0.0008V Development signal strength receivers 10Base-T 100BASE-TX 1000BASE-T 10GBASE-T 1V 10 MHz IL= 6.5 dB 31 MHz IL= 11.4 dB 62 MHz IL= 16.3 dB 417 MHz IL= 44.7 dB 0.81V Signal Level 0V Spectral Bandwidth 0.08V -1V Manchester Coding MLT-3 PAM 5 PAM 16 20 MSymbols/s 25 MSymbols/s125 MSymbols/s 800 MSymbols/s "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  7. Noise: common mode disturbances Cpar Mind Disturbance Perfectly balanced Imperfectly balanced Idist Idist Idist2 Idist/2 Idist1 Idist/2 UC UC2 UD=0 UD>0 Idist/2 Idist2 Idist/2 Idist1 UD =UC2 – UC1 UC1 -UC Udist Udist Unbalance atten. = 20*Log(UD/Udist) "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  8. 20m Conduit / Raceway Cable V 10GBase-T 1000Base-T Coupling: raceway to UTP cabling Test setup: "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  9. Screening attenuation P‘Com P‘Com PCom PDif Unbalance attenuation acoupl 0 dB Unbalance Screened Unbalance Unscreened Screening attenuation Frequency New Parameter: Coupling attenuation(CA) PCom PDif Coupling attenuation acoupl=10*Log(PCom/PDif) "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  10. The coupling attenuation of the link is determined by means of the absorber clamp method according to EN 50289-1-15:2004: 30-250 60.3-20lg(f) Schematic drawing of the test set-up for coupling attenuation ISO/IEC 11801 Amendment 1 (2008-04), Class EA limits 68 dB CA @ ISO/IEC 11801 Amd.1 (2008-04) ISO/IEC 24702 Industrial Premises MICE Categorization: E1 (Office)  acoupl = 40 dBE2 (Light industry)  acoupl = 50 dB E3 (Factory floor)  acoupl = 60 dB "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  11. New parameter: Alien Crosstalk (AXT) • X-Talk of neighboring channels • Increases in parallel runs • Primarily between same colored pairs (same lay length) • Difficulties to test in the field "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  12. Alien Crosstalk No synchronization  no active compensation for Alien Crosstalk Active Compensation with 10GBase-T Active DSP Echo- and NEXT – compensation NEXT: >40 dB FEXT: >25 dB RL: >55 dB 10GBase-T Transmission "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  13. Independent LAB’s Study goals • What EMC properties do shielded and unshielded cabling components possess? • What special measures are necessary to take for screened or unscreened systems? • Which advantages and disadvantages are linked to screened or unscreened systems? • Give guidance to planners or end users to prevent confusion and uncertainty when select systems. • Providing a fair and independent comparison of the EMC behavior of screened and unscreened cabling "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  14. The study was commissioned by: The study was carried out by: GHMT AG In der Kolling 13 66450 Bexbach www.ghmt.de info@ghmt.de "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  15. Cabling sample selection "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  16. Active components used "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  17. System set-up schematic Installation cable Patch panel Patch panel Patch cord Server Server Switch Equipment cord Equipment cord "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  18. System set-up anechoic chamber "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  19. "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  20. EN 55022 Emission: Radiated field strength Tests the ability of a device not to disturb other equipment in their normal operation "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  21. Emission: Radiated field strength 10GBase-T: System 02 (U/UTP) vs. System 05 (S/FTP) "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  22. Emission: Radiated field strength 1000Base-T: System 02 (U/UTP) vs. System 05 (S/FTP) "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  23. Emission: Radiated field strength 10GBase-T vs. 1000Base-T: System 02 (U/UTP) Spectrum 1000Base-T Spectrum 10GBase-T "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  24. Emission: Radiated field strength 10GBase-T: System 05 (S/FTP) different earthing single-sided earthing double-sided earthing No significant differences in terms of EM emission ! "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  25. Emission: Radiated field strength 10GBase-T: Overview 10 Gbps @ 800 MHz The better the EMC quality of the cabling, the lower the radiated radio-frequency disturbance field strength. "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  26. Emission: Radiated field strength 10GBase-T: Summary • Screened cabling will be able to transmit 10GBase-T and fulfil Class B emission limits (for residential areas) • Unscreened cabling with 10GBase-T fulfils Class A emission requirements (for business areas, e.g. dedicated Office spaces, data centre) • The better the CA (and therefore the screening efficiency) the smaller the radiated field strength. • No recognizable improvement of the emission from double sided earthing to single sided earthing. "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  27. EMC immunity tests performed • EN 61000-4-3: Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test • EN 61000-4-4: Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test • EN 61000-4-6: Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields • EN 61000-4-8: Power frequency magnetic field immunity test • EN 61000-4-2: Electrostatic discharge "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  28. Test criterion: example plot Stress level 1 Stress level 2 Stress level 3 Stress level 4 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  29. MICE-Classification EN 50173-1:2008-04 Excerpt for criterion E (Electromagnetic compatibility) "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  30. EN 61000 -4-3 Immunity: Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field Tests the ability of a device to operate normally in the presence of electromagnetic fields "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  31. Immunity: Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field, Overview E3 E1/ E2 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  32. Immunity: Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field, Summary • All screened systems allow for 10Gpbs operation in E1 / E2 environments. • For harsher environments, an S-FTP screen construction is necessary. • Double-sided earthing does not lead to any improvement over single sided earthing. • Unscreened systems meet the requirements of class E1 / E2 for 1 Gbps. For 10Gbps additional protection measures are necessary. "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  33. Practical test: - Walkie-talkies - - mobile phone - - GSM card - Practical test: 10GBase-T Walkie-talkies, mobile phone, GSM card "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  34. Practical test: 10GBase-T Walkie-talkies, mobile phone, GSM card Interference (abort data transmission)  No interference observed Usage of a wireless communication device in proximity of an unscreened cabling (e.g. in a data center) can impair the data transmission. "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  35. EN 61000 -4-4 Immunity: Fast transients (burst) test Tests the ability of a device to operate normally in proximity of disturbing power lines and equipment "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  36. Immunity: Fast transients (burst) test 10GBase-T, Overview E3 E1 E2 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  37. Immunity: Fast transients (burst) test E3 10GBase-T, Earthing influence E2 E1 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  38. Immunity: Fast transients (burst) test 10GBase-T, Summary • All screened systems allow for 10Gpbs operation in all environments (E1 – E3). Quality of the screen improves immunity. • Double-sided earthing does improve immunity against fast transients over single sided earthing. • The screen connection has to be continuous from Switch to Server (no U-UTP patch cords). • Unscreened systems meet the requirements of class E1 for 1 Gbps. For 10Gbps operation carefully routing necessary to separate from power cables "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  39. Practical test: - fluorescent lamp - Practical test: 10GBase-T Fluorescent lamp "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  40. Practical test: 10GBase-T Fluorescent lamp Interference (abort data transmission)  No interference observed Fluorescent lamps can impair the 10GBase-T in U-UTP systems, when distance between data cable and power cable or fluorescent lamp is not sufficient. "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  41. Experiment: -mesh cable tray- D = 0 – 50 cm Experiment: Mesh cable tray 10GBase-T, Fast transients (burst) test "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  42. E3 E2 E1 distance between power and data transmission cables Experiment: Mesh cable tray 10GBase-T, Fast transients (burst) test, Overview "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  43. Experiment: Mesh cable tray 10GBase-T, Fast transients (burst) test, Summary • Screened systems meet the environmental class E3 at all distances, even without separation. • For unscreened systems separation to power cabling is essential. For class E1 distances must be ≥ 30 cm. • The standardized capacitive coupling clamp simulates a cable installation with power and date cable very near together (< 1cm). "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  44. EN 61000 -4-6 Immunity test: Conducted disturbances, induced by radio- frequency fields Tests the ability of a device to operate normally in proximity disturbing power lines "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  45. E3 E1/E2 Immunity test: Conducted disturbances, induced by radio- frequency fields, overview "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  46. Immunity test: Conducted disturbances, induced by radio- frequency fields, Summary • The screened systems meet the requirements of MICE class E3 for 1000Base-T and 10GBase-T. • Higher quality screening provides higher immunity against induced radio frequency fields. • Double-sided earthing does not improve the immunity significantly over single-sided earthing. • Unscreened systems meet the requirements for E1 / E2 environmentsin the 1Gbps operation mode.For 10Gbps additional protection against conducted induced radio-frequency fields is needed. "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  47. EN 61000 -4-8 Immunity: Power-frequency magnetic field Tests the ability of a device to operate normally in the presence of large magnetic fields "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  48. Immunity: Power-frequency magnetic field 10GBase-T, Overview E3 E2 E1 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  49. Immunity: Power-frequency magnetic field 10GBase-T, Overview • All systems tested meet the requirements of MICE class E3 in all three operation modes. • The equalizing currents ascertained with screened systems do not have any impact on data transmission. • Equalizing currents can be reduced by double-sided earthing. "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

  50. EN 61000-4-2 Immunity: Electrostatic discharge "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"