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Attitude Instrument Flying

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  1. Attitude Instrument Flying

  2. Terminal Learning Objective Interpret flight instruments indications needed to maintain aircraft attitude during IFR flight.

  3. Attitude Instrument Flying • Control of an aircraft’s spatial position by using instruments rather than outside visual references. • Proper instrument interpretation is the basis for helicopter control. • Know how a particular instrument functions so you can translate that information into a control response.

  4. VMC (Visual reference Points)

  5. IMC (Flight Instruments) Proper Instrument Interpretation is the Basis for Aircraft Control REQUIRES SKILL !!! Uh-Oh!

  6. Three Fundamental Skills Instrument Interpretation Cross Checking Aircraft Control

  7. Cross Checking Scanning and monitoring two or more instruments to determine the attitude and performance of the aircraft.

  8. Six Basic Flight Instruments • Attitude indicator • Altimeter • Airspeed indicator • HSI • VSI • Turn and Slip

  9. Three Fundamental Skills • Scan: The instruments included in the scan are dependent upon the maneuver performed. • Practice !!!!!

  10. Three Fundamental Skills Cross Check Errors: Fixation: Staring at one instrument too long. Omission: Inadvertently omitting an instrument from the cross check. Emphasis: concentrating too heavily on one or two instruments during the cross check.

  11. INSTRUMENT INTERPRETATION Primary Instruments Supporting Instruments

  12. Basic flight Instruments • Direct indicating instruments Attitude Indicator • Indirect indicating instruments Vertical Speed Indicator Altimeter Airspeed Indicator Heading Indicator Torque meter

  13. Rule #1 CONTROL THE AIRCRAFT

  14. Rule #2 Attitudeof the aircraft Power + Performance =

  15. Control Instruments • Attitude Indicator • Torquemeter Gauge

  16. Performance Instruments Altitude: Altimeter Vertical Speed Indicator Airspeed: Airspeed Indicator Direction: HSI/RMI Turn and Slip

  17. Flight Axis Vertical Axis (Yaw) PITCH The angular relationship of the longitudinal axis to the natural horizon. The aircraft’s attitude rotates around the lateral axis. Longitudinal Axis (Bank / Roll) Lateral Axis (Pitch)

  18. Attitude Indicator Direct indication of aircraft pitch attitude Provides Simultaneous Pitch & Bank indications Supporting instrument for pitch attitude

  19. 10° Nose Up/Down 5° Nose Up/Down Horizon Miniature aircraft

  20. PITCH INDICATIONS NOSE LOW

  21. PITCH INDICATIONS HIGH NOSE

  22. Primary pitch attitude instrument. ALTIMETER Indicates height above MSL.. Calibrated to convert atmospheric pressure to an altitude indication

  23. 298 299 NOSE LOW DESCENDING

  24. 298 299 CLIMBING NOSE HIGH

  25. ACCURACY & RELIABILITY CHECKED PRIOR TO EACH IFR FLIGHT MUST BE WITHIN +/- 70 FEET OF FIELD ELEVATION WHEN SET TO AIRFIELD BAROMETRIC PRESSURE Reference – FM 3-04.240 paragraph 1-10, page 1-4

  26. Set Altimeter to Field Elevation Before Engine Start 298 299

  27. Reads 29.85 in HG 298 299 KOLLSMAN WINDOW

  28. 298 298 299 299 Now set 29.90 Altimeter error with Kollsman window set to 29.85” and field altimeter setting from ATIS 29.90. (Rotors turning) 29.90 - 29.85 = 0.05 ( 50 feet error)

  29. Vertical Speed Indicator Supporting Pitch Indicates Climb/Descent in Feet Per Minute *IVSI no lag but affected by turbulence VSI - has 6 - 9 sec lag

  30. Vertical Speed Indicator 500 FPM Climb 500 FPM Descent 1000 FPM Climb

  31. Nose low Descending Nose high Climbing Decelerating Accelerating Airspeed Indicator Supporting Pitch attitude instrument level flight Indirect pitch indicator

  32. Bank Attitude • Angular relationship of the lateral axis to the horizon. • Aircraft rotates around the longitudinal axis. Longitudinal Axis (Bank / Roll)

  33. Primary Bank Instrument Initially Supporting Pitch

  34. RIGHT TURN

  35. NOSE HIGH LEFT TURN

  36. Indirect Indicating Instruments used in Controlling Bank Attitude • Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) • Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) • Magnetic Compass • Turn and Slip Indicator

  37. RMI HSI Indications in a LEFT turn Primary Bank Instrument

  38. RMI HSI Indications in a Right turn Primary Bank Instrument

  39. Magnetic Compass N 33 30 3 6 Turn Leftto heading 330° Turn Rightto heading 030°.

  40. Types of Turns • Standard rate • Half standard rate • Steep turns

  41. 12 - 15 degrees @ 90 KTs = 3°/second RIGHT TURN Standard Rate

  42. 12 - 15 degrees @ 90 KTs = 3°/sec LEFT TURN Standard Rate

  43. 2 MIN TURN Primary/Supporting Bank Instrument

  44. Characteristics of a Standard Rate Turn • Bank angle 12° to 15° • Turn rate 3° per second • Used for heading changes of 20° or more. 2 MIN TURN

  45. 2 MIN TURN Standard Rate

  46. Half Standard Rate

  47. Characteristics of a Half Standard Rate Turn • Bank angle 6° to 71/2° • Turn rate 11/2° per second • Used for heading changes of less than 20°. 2 MIN TURN

  48. 2 MIN TURN 1/2 Standard Rate