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Accelerated C/C++

Accelerated C/C++

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Accelerated C/C++

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  1. Accelerated C/C++ Advanced OOPCS 440/540Fall 2014Kenneth Chiu

  2. Purpose • I’m assuming all of you have had a first-pass in C++. • Basic style • Basic programming approach • Learn iteratively: second-pass to hit things that you didn’t have the background/context to think/appreciate about the first time through. • Based on what has tripped me up in the past. • I want people to also think about why things are the way they are. • Language decisions are made by people just like you. And sometimes, they make mistakes. • What is a mistake in a language?

  3. What Is A Language? • What is a computer language? • HTML? • PHP? • XML? • Excel Macros? • “Turing complete” • Can compute anything that a TM can compute.

  4. Compilation Process • What happens when we compile? • What is object code? • Compilers are usually invoked via a front-end driver that orchestrates the stages. For example, g++ will: • Run the preprocessor. • Run the compiler. • Run the assembler. • Run the linker. • What happens when you run a compiled program? • OS loads the file into memory. • Sets up various memory regions. • May do some runtime linking/relocation. • Jump to main.

  5. Language Runtime • Some machine code in the executable corresponds directly to source. • i = 2 + j; • Other machine code does not. • if (typeid(A) == typeid(B)) { … } • Such machine code is said to be part of the language runtime. • Is there source code that causes no machine code to be generated?

  6. Types of Violations of the Standard • What is a language standard, what does it specify? • Does it tell you what you can or cannot do? • Not really. • It specifies constraints on the language. It says, if you do A, then B happens. • It’s a contract, essentially. • What is a “violation” of the standard? • It’s imprecise word, but commonly used to mean something not in accordance with some aspect of the standard. • What happens when your program violates the standard? • Does it mean the program won’t compile? Will it crash? • Can a compiler also violate the standard? • Are there different ways that a program can “violate” the standard?

  7. What will this print out? • #include <iostream>int main() { char i = 0;i--; std::cout << (int) i << std::endl;} • Prints out -1 when compiled on remote.cs.binghamton.edu. • Is it guaranteed to print this out? In every occurrence? • How can we find out what it will print out? • The compiler vendor needs to tell you if char is signed or unsigned? • Known as implementation-defined behavior. • What will this print out? • void foo(int i1, int i2) { }foo(printf(“First.\n”), printf(“Second.\n”)); • Is it guaranteed to print this out? In every occurrence? • How can we find out what it will print out? • You can’t. The compiler vendor can change it at will. • Known as unspecified behavior. • What will this do? • int *a = 0;*a = 1; • Anything could happen. Anything. • “Demons could fly out of your nose!” • Known as undefined behavior.

  8. Implications of “undefined behavior” for the Implementer • As the implementer, what do you do if the specification says that the result is undefined behavior? • For example, let’s say the function below is specified as: • void foo(int *); • If the pointer is null, the behavior is undefined. • If the pointer does not point to the first element of an array of two integers, then the behavior is undefined.

  9. Compile-Time vs. Run-Time • What kind of error is better? • For a given error, there’s no advantage to making it run-time. • However, to turn that run-time error into a compile-time error usually means using a strict, statically-typed language. • Those languages are usually thought of as being not as flexible.

  10. Preprocessor • #include “A.hpp” • #include <A.hpp> • #define macro(a, b) • #if • #if FOO == 3 • #if defined(a) • #endif • #else, #elif • #ifdef, #ifndef • #error, #pragma • __LINE__ (integer literal), __FILE__ (string literal), __DATE__ (string literal), __TIME__ (string literal) • __cplusplus • #(stringification)and ## (token gluing) in expansions • [Show]

  11. -E (option to show results after preprocessing) • [Show preprocessor_output_option.] • Line continuation is a backslash at the end. (Make sure you don’t have a space after the backslash.) • What’s wrong with this? • #define MY_MACRO(t) \ void foo_##t() { \ // This is a comment. \call_something(); \ }

  12. Multi-line macros: • #define macro(x) \cout << x << endl; \cout << “DEBUGGING” << endl; • Good? • if (condition) macro(my_var); • #define macro(x) \ do { \cout << x << endl; \ /* Etc. */ \ } while (0) • Why did we leave off the semicolon at the end?

  13. Suppose you have code that should compile on both Linux and Win32, but you need to call a different function in each. What do you do? • Why not just have two versions of your source code? • Conditional compilation: • #ifdef __linuxsome_linux_func(…);#else some_win32_func(…);#endif • Is this good? • #ifdef __linuxsome_linux_func(…);#elif defined (__win32_preprocessor_symbol) some_win32_func(…);#else #error Unknown platform#endif

  14. Predefined identifiers: These are not macros • __func__: A static const character array initialized with the current function name. • void some_func() {cout << __func__ << endl;}void some_other_func() {cout << __func__ << endl;} • Why aren’t these macros?

  15. Variadic macros • #define foo(…) func(_VA_ARGS_) • Let’s say we wanted to print the file name and line number with all of our debug statements. • [Show debug_print.] • #include <stdio.h>#define dbg(fmt, ...) \fprintf(stderr, "%s[%d]: " fmt "\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, ## __VA_ARGS__)intmain() {dbg("%d, %d", 1, 2);dbg("%d, %d, %f", 1, 2, 3.14);dbg("Uh-oh!");}

  16. Assertions • Assertions are ways of “asserting” that certain things are true. • By putting in an assertion, you are saying that if the expression being asserted is not true, then something is very seriously wrong. • What kind of assertions might you use here? • delet(Animal *a) { …} • Animal *pop_front(List *l) { …} • To make assertions work, include this header file: • #include <assert.h>

  17. Assert liberally. • Preconditions • Any condition that before a section of code that that code relies on for correctness. • Postconditions • Any condition after a section of code that that code will preserve, if it was correct. • For example, in a BST, you know that the left child must be greater than or equal to the right child. • Loop invariants • Any condition within a loop that your code relies on for correctness. • Consider code for binary search. Let’s say that it maintains an index to the beginning of the current search region (begin_index), and a pointer to the end of the current search region (end_index). What assertion can you put in at the end of the loop? • while (...) { ... assert(???);}

  18. Use to check return codes. • A quick and dirty way of checking error codes. Gives you 80% of the benefit, with 5% of the effort. • ec = some_lib_or_sys_call(…);assert(ec == 0); • To compile-out the assertions, define NDEBUG. • g++ -DNDEBUG foo.cpp

  19. How is the assert() macro defined? • How do we find it? • #ifndef NDEBUG #define assert(e) \ ((e) ? static_cast<void>(0) \ : fail(#e, __FILE__, __LINE__, __func__))#elif #define assert(e)#endif • What if we have an assertion that is low-cost, so we always want it to be included, even in production code? • #define check(e) \ ((e) ? static_cast<void>(0) \ : fail(#e, __FILE__, __LINE__, __func__))

  20. Assertions vs. Exceptions vs. Special Return Values • What are the possible behaviors you could implement for these conditions? • Animal *find(const char *type_name); • Normally returns the found Animal. • What should you do if the animal is not found? • int read(int fd, char *buf, int count); • Normally returns count of bytes read. • What should you do if it is the end of file? • double sqrt(double x); • Normally returns the square root of the number. • What should you do if the number is negative? • int send_socket(int sock_fd, const char *buf, int count); • Normally returns the count of the number of bytes sent. • What if the network is down? • void *lookup_in_hash_table(const char *key); • Normally returns the value that is found (which is a void * for this particular hash table). • What if the key is not found? • void *malloc(size_tsz); • What if there is no more memory?

  21. Compile-Time Assertions • assert() is strictly run-time. You won’t know till you run the program. • How can you assert things at compile-time? • A limited number of things can be checked in the preprocessor: • #define FOO 2#if FOO < 4 …#endif • #if sizeof(long) < 8 #error Type long is too small.#endif • C++11 supports static_assert, which can check basically anything that is a compile-time constant (constexpr). • static_assert(sizeof(long) >= 8, “Type long is too small.”); • C++98 can use boost static asserts.

  22. Comments • How are these comments? • // Define an int variable i in the for-loop, and// initialize it to 0. Execute the for-loop as long// as i is less than the value of a.size(). At the// end of each iteration, increment i by 1. In the// body of the for-loop, multiple a[i] by 2, and// assign it to a[i]. • for (int i = 0; i < a.size(); i++) { a[i] *= 2;} • // Add 7 to x, then bitwise AND it with the bitwise// complement of 0x7. • x = (x + 7) & ~0x7; • // Call compute_y() with i and x as parameters. • compute_y(i, x); • // Initialize health to 1. • double health = 1.0;

  23. Better? • // Double each element in array a.for (int i = 0; i < a.size(); i++) { a[i] *= 2;} • // Round up x to next multiple of 8.x = (x + 7) & ~0x7; • // Compute y-coordinate of ith// player given a fixed// x-coordinate.compute_y(i, x); • // Create monsters starting at// health 1.0, since health 0 means// dead.double health = 1.0;

  24. Don’t say the obvious. • // Initialize x.x = 1; • Do comment the non-obvious. • // Round up x to next multiple of 8x = (x + 7) & ~0x7; • How do you comment out large sections of code? • Use #if 0 to comment out large sections. It will nest. • If working in a team, consider leaving your initials/name in comments that might need explanation. • // x cannot be defined as a long due to a bug// in the Solaris compiler. –ken

  25. Source code Organization

  26. C++/C Source Code Organization • Why break code up into multiple files? • Ease of finding things? • Compilation speed. • Only need to recompile part of the app. • Known as separate compilation • Libraries • Reuse? • If I put a class separately into A.cpp, it is easier to move to another application.

  27. Okay, why split into header file and implementation file? What (bad) things would happen if we did not? • For libraries, the case is clear. • Need declarations to tell the compiler how to call code. • What about your application? Why not put everything into A.cpp, like in Java? • Suppose B.cpp needs to use class A. • The compiler needs the declarations. • Why not just include the whole source file? • Why need header file if already linking the library? • Because the link happens after the assembly code for a call is generated. • Even if the compiler knew the libraries early, it can’t find the calling information. • Why need library if already have the header file? • The header file tells the compiler how to call something, but there still has to be some code there to call. • Are you satisfied with these answers? What’s the meta-question here? (Why isn’t this an issue in Java?)

  28. The header-file/implementation-file split is a convention. • The standard does not dictate what goes in a header file. • However, the design of C++ does strongly influence best practices. • What goes in a header file? • The minimum amount necessary for the implementation (classes and/or declarations of standalone functions) to be used by other files. • In other words, you divide the code into two chunks. • In the first chunk, you put everything that is needed to use your code. • Such as call it, or if a class, define an instance of the object, etc. • This is the header file (.hpp). • Everything else goes in the second chunk. • This is the implementation file (.cpp) file.

  29. A.hpp B.hpp C.hpp includes A.cpp B.cpp C.cpp main.cpp compiled to A.o B.o C.o main.o link a.out(exe) Libraries

  30. How many times per executable is a header file compiled? What about implementation file? • If something can go in either, should we put it in the header file or implementation file? • What do these code snippets need? • obj->a_member • void foo(MyClass *) {} • obj->foo(); • Where do these go? • Class definitions • Function definitions • Function declarations • Global variable declarations • Global variable definitions

  31. Translation Unit • Consider this code fragment from a file named foo.cpp: • …void foo() {goo();}… • Are either of these statements is clear and unambiguous? • “The call to goo() will be a syntax error if there is no declaration of it in this file.” • “The call to goo() will be a syntax error if this file doesn’t declare goo(), and this file doesn’t (recursively) include any header files that declare goo().” • This suggests that we should have a new term: A translation unit is the result of reading in a file, after all processing of included files and conditional compilation. • “This will be a syntax error if there is no declaration of goo() in the translation unit.”

  32. Handling Global Variables • How do you use global variables when you split things into files? Does this work? File1.cpp int a;void f() {// Access a.// …} File2.cpp int a;void g() {// Access a.// …} $ g++ File1.cpp File2.cpp ...

  33. One Definition Rule (ODR) • In C and C++, each variable can be defined only once. You can declare a global variable by using extern. • Defining (no extern) actually creates a variable. • Declaring (by using extern) states the existence of a variable, and indicates that it was defined somewhere else, so tells the linker to go look for it. • So, a global variable should be defined in one translation unit and declared in all others that use it. • How to fix previous?

  34. File2.cpp extern int a;void g() {// Access a.// …} File1.cpp int a;void f() {// Access a.// …} • You need to have: • Of course, you should probably be more systematic about it: globals.hpp extern int a;extern double x; globals.cpp int a;double x; File1.cpp #include “globals.hpp”void f() {// Access a.// …} File2.cpp #include “globals.hpp”void g() {// Access a.// …} $ g++ globals.cpp File1.cpp File2.cpp ...

  35. There is a lot of redundancy between globals.hpp and globals.cpp. Imagine if it were a very large file. Anyway to avoid it? globals.cpp int a;double x;// ...// Zillions of them globals.hpp extern int a;extern double x;// ...// Zillions of them

  36. globals.hpp#ifndef XYZZY_GLOBALS_HPP#define XYZZY_GLOBALS_HPP#include <A.hpp>#ifndef XYZZY_GLOBALS_EXTERN#define XYZZY_GLOBALS_EXTERN extern#endifXYZZY_GLOBALS_EXTERN A a;XYZZY_GLOBALS_EXTERN double x;#endif File2.cpp#include “globals.hpp”void g() { // Access a. // …} • Leverage the preprocessor: globals.cpp#define XYZZY_GLOBALS_EXTERN#include “globals.hpp” $ gcc File1.cpp File2.cpp globals.cpp • Isn’t this actually more complicated?

  37. ODR, Revisited • Let’s say you are the linker implementer. Could you make this work if you wanted to? • [Show multiple_definitions] File1.cpp int a;void f() {// Access a.// …} File2.cpp int a;void g() {// Access a.// …} $ g++ File1.cpp File2.cpp ...

  38. File1.cpp int a;void f() { // Access a. // …} File2.cpp int a = 1;void g() { // Access a. // …} • What about this? • We could even make this work, but which one? • At some point, rules become too complicated. Sometimes simple rules are better, even if they sometimes seem to make things inconvenient. $ g++ File1.cpp File2.cpp ...

  39. Include Guards • The (loose) convention in C++ is to put each class in a separate header file. • Is this correct? D1.hpp #include "B.hpp"class D1 : public B { … }; main.cpp #include "D1.hpp"#include "D2.hpp"int main() { D1 d1; D2 d2; // …} B.hpp class B { … }; D2.hpp #include "B.hpp"class D2 : public B { … };

  40. Include guards make includes “idempotent”. (This means it’s okay if a file gets included twice.) • Maintains simple rule: If you use a class, include its header file. B.hpp #ifndef XYZZY_B_HPP#define XYZZY_B_HPPclass B { … };#endif D2.hpp #ifndef XYZZY_D2_HPP#define XYZZY_D2_HPP#include "B.hpp"class D2 : public B { … };#endif D1.hpp #ifndef XYZZY_D1_HPP#define XYZZY_D1_HPP#include "B.hpp"class D1 : public B { … };#endif main.cpp #include "D1.hpp"#include "D2.hpp"int main() { D1 d1; D2 d2; // …} Why the funny prefix?

  41. Does this work? • // A.hpp#ifndef ACME_A_HPP#define ACME_A_HPP#include “B.hpp”struct A { B *b_field;};#endif • // B.hpp#ifndef ACME_B_HPP#define ACME_B_HPP#include “A.hpp”struct B { A a_field;};#endif

  42. First-level of include: • // A.hpp#ifndef ACME_A_HPP#define ACME_A_HPP// B.hpp#ifndef ACME_B_HPP#define ACME_B_HPP#include “A.hpp”struct B { A a_field;};#endifstruct A { B *b_field;};#endif Include of B.hpp from top-level A.hpp

  43. Second-level of include • // A.hpp#ifndef ACME_A_HPP#define ACME_A_HPP// B.hpp#ifndef ACME_B_HPP#define ACME_B_HPP// A.hpp#ifndef ACME_A_HPP#define ACME_A_HPP#include “B.hpp”struct A { B *b_field;};#endifstruct B { A a_field;};#endifstruct A { B *b_field;};#endif Include of A.hpp in include of B.hpp in top-level A.hpp Include of B.hpp in top-level A.hpp

  44. Solution is a forward declaration to break the cycle. • // A.hpp#ifndef ACME_A_HPP#define ACME_A_HPPstruct B;struct A { B *b_field;};#endif • // B.hpp#ifndef ACME_B_HPP#define ACME_B_HPP#include “A.hpp”struct B { A a_field;};#endif

  45. How about this? • // A.hpp#ifndef A_HPP#define A_HPPstruct B;struct A { B foo() { return B(); }};#endif • // B.hpp#ifndef B_HPP#define B_HPPstruct A;struct B { A foo() { return A(); }};#endif Show recursive inline

  46. Need to split apart class definition from function definition: • // A.hpp#ifndef MY_COMPONENT_HPP#define MY_COMPONENT_HPPstruct B;struct A { inline B foo();};struct B { inline A foo();};inline B A::foo() { return B(); }inline A B::foo() { return A(); }#endif Show recursive inline

  47. Can accomplish same effect by careful positioning. • // A.hpp#ifndef A_HPP#define A_HPPstruct B;struct A { inline B foo();};#include “B.hpp”inline B A::foo() { return B(); } #endif • // B.hpp#ifndef B_HPP#define B_HPPstruct A;struct B { inline A foo();};#include “A.hpp”inline A B::foo() { return A(); }#endif Show recursive inline

  48. Header files should be independent. • // Should not need anything here.#include <A.hpp> • A header file should always be included in the implementation file. Which is better? • // File A.cpp#include <iostream>#include <A.hpp>// Code is here… • // File A.cpp#include <A.hpp>#include <iostream>// Code is here…

  49. CLASSES

  50. Objects • What is an object? • What is object-oriented programming? What is non-OOP? • In non-OOP, data and the code that use and modify data are all mixed together. There is not a clear notion that this code goes with this data. Data is “amorphous”, without clear groupings. • Can you do object-oriented programming in C? • Xt • File systems • struct class1 {int(*method1)(struct class1 *, double x);double member1;intmember2;};p->method1(p, 3.14); • Classes encapsulate operations and data, grouping them together. • Class syntax is all about how to group the data and the operations, and what operations are valid, etc.