ART IN HISTORY Thematic Power Point Erica Freeman 10-21-10 A.P. American History Period. 6
By an Aztec Artist In simple colors of almost no verity Shows a man using a tool to dig out a crop The man is only wearing a loin cloth Symbolizes that the peoples of Mesoamerica developed a grater verity of cultivated crops than any other region in the world This helped the civilization survive Mesoamerican maize cultivation
Painted on a piece of red-on-buff pottery Made by the Hohokams (1000 c.e.) • The first irrigation farmers This piece of art work is a bowl type object Tribal like figures (dancing) are painted around it Human figures dancing
The New Queen Being Taken to the King Engraving by in the 16th century inspired by a drawing by Jacques le Moyne an early French colonist of Florida In this time period Florida communities were hierarchical, with classes and hereditary chiefs, some being women -In this engraving a “queen” is depicted being carried on an ornamental litter by men of rank Theodor de Bry
Colorful Made in the 15th century The essayist Montaigne talked with several American Indians at the French court who “noticed among us some men gorged to the full with things of every sort while their other halves were beggars at their doors, emaciated with hunger and poverty” and “found it strange that these poverty stricken halves should suffer such injustice, and that they did not take the others by the throat or set fire to their houses.” This picture depicts the peasants working in the field and begging at the wall to a huge castle (not shown in this version) Above this a semi-circle with what seems to depict the time of year (it is in a different language) A French peasant in the field before a spectacular castle
Struck Tenochtitlán Black and white 1520 Drawings of people dying from smallpox “There came amongst us a great sickness, a general plague,” reads the account,” killing vast numbers of people. It covered many all over with sores: on the face, on the head, on the chest, everywhere… The sores were so terrible that the victims could not lie face down, nor on their backs, nor move from one side to the other. And when they tried to move even a little, they cried out in agony.” The victims of the smallpox epidemic
Jacques le Moyne 1564 Shows the Timucuas of coastal Florida and the colonists of the French colony of Fort Caroline having friendly relations The Timucuans had hoped that the French would help defend them against the Spanish who were in pursuit of Indian slaves This shows the Indians welcoming the French with a picnic of sorts Watercolor
Unknown artist 1648 Yellow tinted colors The queen has her hand on a globe • Symbolizing the rising sea power of England The open windows in the background shows • the battle against the Spanish Armada in 1588 • and the destruction of the Spanish ships in a providential storm • interpreted by the queen as an act of divine intervention The Armada Portrait of Elizabeth I
1585 by John White Brown colors Shows eighteen longhouses surrounded by a palisaded enclosure with a guarded entrance (almost like a wall enclosure made of wood) The house with the pyramid-shaped roof is thought to have been a ceremonial center The Algonquian village of Pomeiooc
Unknown Boston artist 1670 Puritan children • David, Joanna and Abigail Mason They are dressed in finery • An indication of wealth and prominence of their family The cane in David’s hand symbolizes his position as the male heir The rose in the hand of Abigail symbolizes childhood innocence The Mason Children
1651 Now New York The Dutch intended to construct a fur trade network that extended far into the continent They paddle in dugout canoes 25 years after its founding, the Dutch settlement still occupied only the lower tip of Manhattan Island The earliest known view of New Amsterdam
Terms • Engraving • the art of forming designs by cutting, corrosion by acids, a photographic process, etc., on the surface of a metal plate, block of wood, or the like, for or as for the purpose of taking off impressions or prints of the design so formed. • Symbolism • the practice of representing things by symbols, or of investing things with a symbolic meaning or character. • Oil painting • the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil • Watercolor • The medium or the resulting artwork, in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water soluble vehicle. • Pottery • Ceramic ware, esp. earthenware and stoneware; objects that are first shaped of wet clay, and then hardened by baking.
Important People • Jacques le Moyne • Jacques LeMoyne was a French artist who came to Florida with Rene de Laudonniere, a French explorer, in 1564. LeMoyne was the first artist to visit the new world. He traveled through North Florida, charting the coastline and the lives of the Timucua Indians. • Theodor de Bry • Theodor De Bry is best known for his series of volumes chronicling many of the earliest expeditions to the Americas. De Bry was a Frankfurt goldsmith, engraver, print-seller and book-seller.
Questions • What is one example of symbolism in these forms of art listed above? • The Mesoamericans farming • The human figures on the pottery dancing • The feast that the Timucuas prepared for the French • The cane held by David Mason
Who was the first artist to enter the New World? • Theodor de Bry • Leonardo Da Vinci • Jacques le Moyne • David Mason
Who engraved famous artwork? • Theodor de Bry • Leonardo Da Vinci • Jacques le Moyne • David Mason
What is engraving in the art world? • The art of forming designs by cutting, corrosion, etc., on the surface of an object • The art of carving totem poles • A way to illustrate newspapers • The art of forming designs by cutting patterns onto canvas
How is pottery made? • Shaped ceramic ware left out to dry • Shaped ceramic ware that is never dried • Shaped ceramic ware baked • Shaped ceramic ware that is spun until dried
What is done to the pigments on an oil painting? • They are bound with drying oil • They are bound with natural oils from an animal • They are painted on the canvas first followed by a coat of oil • They are painted on the canvas after a coat of oil is painted on
What is done to the pigments in a watercolor? • They are painted on the canvas first followed by a coat of water • They are painted on the canvas after a coat of water is painted on • They are suspended in water • They are mixed in with water and oil
What is the sickness that killed many in Tenochtitlán? • Measles • Chicken Pox • Poison Ivy • Small Pox
In the painting of “The Mason Children” what does their clothing tell about them? • They are poor • They are wealthy • They are settlers • They are Indians
In the earlier art the people are drawn in the fashion of what? • Tribal • Realistic • Cartoon • Animals
Sources • Photos • http://www.keyshistory.org/tumucanwedding2.jpg • http://wwwdelivery.superstock.com/Image/4069/Thumb/4069-6984.jpg • http://humanpast.net/images/Hohokam3.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/88/Les_Tr%C3%A8s_Riches_Heures_du_duc_de_Berry_octobre_detail.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/FlorentineCodex_BK12_F54_smallpox.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Elizabeth_I_Armada_Portrait_British_School.jpg • http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry/white_31_big.GIF • http://www.steveartgallery.se/upload1/file-admin/images/new4/unknow%20artist-492773.jpg • http://cache2.asset-cache.net/xc/51246189.jpg?v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=45B0EB3381F7834DF603592FD303FF231BCE97771A966A051786C2ED51971725 • http://www.johnfishersr.net/images_fia/fia1987may.jpg • Information • http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/engraving • http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/symbolism • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_painting • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watercolor_painting • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pottery • http://fcit.usf.edu/florida/lessons/lemoyne/lemoyne.htm • http://www.philaprintshop.com/debry.html
What is art? • Art is considered the product or process of deliberately arranging symbolic elements in a way that influences and affects the senses, emotions, and/or intellect. • It encompasses a diverse range of human activities, creations, and modes of expression, • including music • literature • film • photography • sculpture • And paintings. • Generally, art is made with the intention of stimulating thoughts and emotions.
Art in African American culture from 1441 – 1770 • Country born slaves provided development and evolution of their culture • Molded themselves into new people • This caused distinctive patterns • in dance • in music • oral tradition • They mostly did not have written literature which is a form of art • Story telling • Instead they had oral literature • Created creative thoughts • Led to telling the stories through painting, weaving, pottery etc. • And in religion (death and burial) • Decorated graves with shells and pottery • old custom • Dance was a form of worship
Art in African American culture from 1441 – 1770 continued • Dance and music • Came before common language • 18th century observers commented on the musical and rhythmic gifts of Africans • Thomas Jefferson • African remembered their people as dancers, musicians and poets also • Most Africans were accomplished at playing • Stringed instruments • Drums • Mastered the art of • European violin • Guitar • They recreated instruments, that they used in Africa, in America • Banjo • There style • Featured improvisation • Rhythmic complexity • Drums were outlawed • due to fear that they were a secret way of communicating • The slaves ended up using bones, spoons, or sticks • Or just “patting juba” • Slapping their thighs
African American art influences • Culinary arts • Basket weaving • Wood carving • Architectural designs • High, peaked roofs • Broad, shady porches • Ironworking • Dance and music • Influences back and forth between cultures
Traditional culture in the New World dealing with Art • Oral cultures • Depending on the transmission of information by the spoken word rather than through print • story telling • song • music • and other crafts • Women could become involved in spinning
Literature in Colonial America • Literature was not primarily used as a form of entertainment but more as a way to inspire and inform others before the Enlightenment • People like Benjamin Franklin created fictional characters to inform • He used some entertainment in these writings but mostly that was not the main goal • The Enlightenment • Benjamin Franklin was quoted, “The culture of minds by the finer arts and sciences was necessarily postponed to times of more wealth and leisure… these times are come.” • A rising demand for drama, poetry, essays, novels and history occurred • Including William Shakespeare • John Milton • The essays of Joseph Addison • Richard Steele • Jonathan Swift • Samuel Johnson • And editions of the classics
Art in Independence • In this time period literature was the main form of art • Documents and quotes were used with descriptive language and use of literary symbolism • For example: The Declaration of Independence is full is meaning behind the words and big language. • Many say that this document was created to be read in turn by a large amount of people due to the music and pattern behind the words.
Art in Independence Continued • Famous works of art were also inspired by this time period • Boston Massacre by Paul Revere • This was a print, originally from a Boston Engraver • Inaccurate by created much propaganda • Such as The Battle of Bunker Hill by John Trumbull • He was earned the title of “the Painter of the Revolution”
Terms • Spinning: an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic fibers are twisted together to form yarn. • Ironwork: Anything made of iron, or consists largely of it, especially when used for decoration • Culinary Arts: the art of cooking. It is also a skill that is attained by study, practice, or observation related to the preparation of food • Banjo: a stringed instrument with, typically, four or five strings, which vibrate a membrane of plastic material or animal hide stretched over a circular frame. Simpler forms of the instrument were fashioned by enslaved Africans in Colonial America, adapted from several African instruments of the same basic design. • Literature: creative writing of recognized artistic value; the art of written works
Important People • John Trumbull: was an American artist during the period of the American Revolutionary War and was notable for his historical paintings. His Declaration of Independence (one of his paintings) was used on the reverse of the two-dollar bill. He was considered “the Painter of the Revolution” • Benjamin Franklin: was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author and printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat.
Questions • Who was “the Painter of the Revolution”? • Benjamin Franklin • Paul Revere • John Milton • John Trumbull
What were African Americans widely described as? • Musical • Strong • Not artistic • Good painters