Need a blank sheet of paper • 2. Label it “Geography of Europe” • 3. Write down the EQ #1
Europe: A Continent of Peninsulas? OR A Peninsula of Asia?
Southern Peninsulas CrimeanPeninsula Iberian Peninsula Italian Peninsula Balkan Peninsula
II. Bodies of Water ArcticOcean AtlanticOcean North Sea Baltic Sea English Channel CaspianSea Bay ofBiscay BlackSea DardanellesStrait Adriatic Sea AegeanSea TyrrhenianSea Strait ofGibraltar Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea: Mare Nostrum Strait of Gibraltar
Rivers Volga R. Don R. Thames R. Elbe R. Vistula R. Oder R. Rhine R. Dnieper R. Seine R. Loire R. Danube R. Po R. Tagus R. Tiber R. Ebro R.
The Danube River 1770 miles
The Danube River Where Buda & Pest Meet Biking Along the Danube • Flows through the 12 countries of Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania, and the Ukraine.
Rhine River • Busiest river in Europe.
Capitals on the Rivers (1) Paris, right bank of the Seine London on the Thames Prague on the Vltava Budapest on the Danube
Capitals on the Rivers (2) Moscow on the Moscow River Berlin on the Spree Rome on the Tiber Vienna on the Danube
Answer: They are Europe’s lifeline! & Europe is an old civilization
III. Moutains&Peaks Ural Mts. Carpathian Mts. Caucasus Mts. Alps Mts. Pyrennes Mts. Dinaric Alps Apennines Mts. Mt. Vesuvius ^ Mt. Olympus ^ Mt. Etna ^
Elevation Urals Caucasus Pyrennes Carpathians Alps Apennines
The Alps • Cover most of Switzerland, Austria, and parts of Italy and France.
Mt. Blanc in the Alps • Highest mountain in the Alps: 15,771 feet
Transylvaniain the Carpathian Mountains • Home of Vlad Tepeš, theDrakul (“Count Dracula”)
IV. The BENELUX Countries • Belgium • Netherlands • Luxembourg
Floods in The Netherlands 1953 The Dutch, after their terrifying experience of the February 1953 storms, made sure that flooding and destruction on that scale would never happen again by creating the greatest storm surge barrier in the world, known as the Delta project.
Netherlands’ Delta Plan(1957-81)A success story Delta Plan, flood control and reclamation project, S Netherlands, in the Rhine River delta. Built in 1957–81, it involved construction of four major dikes (up to 131 ft/40 m high) across the Rhine's four estuaries on the North Sea, three auxiliary dams, and a storm-tide barrage across the IJssel River. The project shortened the Dutch coastline by c.440 mi (700 km), reclaimed 6,100 acres (15,000 hectares), and created a freshwater lake (33 sq mi/85 sq km). Two navigable waterways to Antwerp and to Rotterdam and Europoort were left open.
The Netherlands • Around 50% of the country lies below sea level and it lies on the delta of three rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse and Schelde) • Lowest point: Zuidplaspolder – 7 m. • Highest point: Vaalserberg 322 m.
Netherlands as long as the dike hold up Veluwe Amsterdam Rotterdam Den Haag
…. this could happen Veluwe Amsterdam Rotterdam Den Haag
Flooding in 19532000 drowned72,000 evacuees300 farms were destroyed40,000 houses and 3,000 farms damaged
Former innersea, now freshwater reserve floodbarriers Upstream waterretention and freshwaterreserves and one of Europe’s biggest wetland nature reserves National actions and policy AMSTERDAM ROTTERDAM
Coastal embankments Typical crest level of 12-14 meters above MSL
ArcticOcean Completed Map Siberian Lowlands Ural Mts. Scandinavian Pen. AtlanticOcean Jutland Pen. Volga R. North Sea Baltic Sea Don R. Northern European Plain Thames R. Elbe R. Vistula R. English Channel Oder R. Rhine R. Steppes Dnieper R. Seine R. Carpathian Mts. CaspianSea Loire R. Caucasus Mts. Bay ofBiscay Alps Mts. Crimean Pen. Danube R. Po R. Pyrennes Mts. Italian Pen. Dinaric Alps Balkan Pen. BlackSea Tagus R. DardanellesStrait Apennines Mts. Tiber R. Iberian Pen. Adriatic Sea Mt. Vesuvius ^ Ebro R. Anatolean Pen. Mt. Olympus ^ AegeanSea TyrrhenianSea Strait ofGibraltar Mt. Etna ^ Peloponnesian Pen.
Mt. Etna, Sicily • An active volcano
Mt. Vesuvius, Italy • Pompeii, 79 CE • Herculaneum, 79 CE • 1944 eruption
WESTERLY WINDS WARM EUROPE: • A Marine West Coast CLIMATE IS MOST OF EUROPE!! 2. The current of warm water from the tropics is called the North Atlantic Drift prevailing westerlies pick up this warmth!! 3.This is felt far inland!
HARSHER CONDITIONS INLAND!!! • Due to the ALPS and DISTANCE from the ATLANTIC OCEAN !!! • This area is a HUMID CONTENENTIAL climate!
THE SUNNY MEDITERRANEAN • MOUNTAIN RANGES block cold north winds! • The exception= FRANCE • Mistral: COLD, DRY WINDS FROM THE NORTH! • Most have SIROCCO hot south wind fromAFRICA • The climate attracts TOURISTS!!!
THE LAND OF THE MIDNIGHT SUN!!! • The far NORTHERN region (Arctic Circle), there are winter days when the sun never RISES and summer days when the sun never SETS!!