February 1, 2011 • Spring Course Calendar • AP Exam: May 2, 2011 Afternoon • First Semester Grades: MONDAY Feb 7 • Brain Bee
Motivation and Work Perspectives on Motivation • Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology • Drives and Incentives • Optimum Arousal • A Hierarchy of Motivations
Motivation Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. What motivates you? AP Photo/ Rocky Mountain News, Judy Walgren Aran Ralston
1. Instincts & Evolutionary PsychologyCan you think of instincts in humans? Instincts: Complex and stereotyped behaviors= performed by all members of a species Performed automatically Have fixed patterns Are not learned Example: imprinting .
1. Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology The early view that instincts control behavior has been replaced by evolutionary theory, which searches for the adaptive functions of behavior.
Perspectives on Motivation Four perspectives to explain motivation include the following: Instinct Theory Drive-Reduction Theory/ Incentives Optimum Arousal Theory Maslow’s Hierarchy of Motives
2. Drive-Reduction Theory A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need Need: physiological deficit Drive= psychological state • Primary Drives: hunger or thirst • Secondary Drives: money
2. Drive Reduction The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis, the maintenance of a steady internal state Drive Reduction Food Empty Stomach (Food Deprived) Stomach Full Organism
Drive Reduction: Incentive Where our needs push,incentives (positive or negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives. A food-deprived person who smells baking bread feels a strong hunger drive.
3. Optimum Arousal Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal Arousal- alertness and activation The Yerkes-Dodson Law states that we perform best at moderate levels of arousal Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Randy Faris/ Corbis
Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs come before psychological needs (1908-1970)
Hierarchy of Needs Joe Skipper/ Reuters/ Corbis Mario Tama/ Getty Images David Portnoy/ Getty Images for Stern Menahem Kahana/ AFP/ Getty Images Hurricane Survivors
1. Compare the four different theories of motivations. 2. Provide an example of a personal motivation or time that you were motivated that falls in each category. 3. Which theory do you agree with the most and why?
Hunger When do we eat? When are we hungry? When we are hungry. When there is no food in our stomach. How do we know when our stomach is empty? Our stomach growls and contracts. These are also called hunger pangs.
What causes us to feel hunger? Starvation Link Starvation Link
The Physiology of Hunger Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger.
Will hunger persist without stomach pains? Tsang (1938) removed rat stomachs, connected the esophagus to the small intestines, and the rats still felt hungry
How is hunger regulation achieved? • Lipostatic Hypothesis: Fat regulates hunger- long term • Glucostatic Hypothesis: Glucose regulates hunger- immediate
C6H12O6 The glucose level in blood is closely maintained. Insulin (released from the pancreas) decreases glucose in the blood, making us feel hungry.
Glucose & the Brain Levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by receptors (neurons) in the stomach, liver, and intestines. They send signals to the hypothalamus Rat Hypothalamus
Hypothalamic Centers The lateral hypothalamus (LH) brings on hunger (stimulation). Destroy the LH, and the animal has no interest in eating
Hypothalamic Centers The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) depresses hunger (stimulation). Destroy the VMH, and the animal eats excessively. Richard Howard
Set-Point Theory Manipulating the hypothalamus alters the body’s “weight thermostat.” Set-point Theory: the hypothalamus wants to maintain a certain optimum body weight If weight is lost, food intake increases and energy expenditure decreases. If weight is gained, the opposite takes place.
Regulation of Thirst Why do we feel thirst? Mouth dryness -Osmoreceptors in our cells -Hypothalamus ultimately in control
Taste Preference: Biology or Culture? Neophobia- the tendency to dislike foreign or unfamiliar foods Richard Olsenius/ Black Star Victor Englebert
Biology: Taste Preferences The preference for sweet and salty foods are universal
Geographical and Religious Food Preferences United States Japan Japan
Food Preferences • Religious values influence eating behavior • Supertasters? • Psychological
Hot Cultures like Hot Spices Countries with hot climates use more bacteria-inhibiting spices in meat dishes.
Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa:A condition in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent woman) continuously loses weight but still feels overweight. Reprinted by permission of The New England Journal of Medicine, 207, (Oct 5, 1932), 613-617. Lisa O’Connor/ Zuma/ Corbis
Eating Disorders Bulimia Nervosa:A disorder characterized by episodes of binging and purging Characterized by overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, using laxatives, fasting, or excessive exercise.
Obesity A disorder characterized by being excessively overweight. http://www.cyberdiet.com
Reasons for Eating Disorders • Sexual Abuse:Childhood sexual abuse does not cause eating disorders. • Family: Younger generations develop eating disorders when raised in families in which weight is an excessive concern. • Genetics: Twin studies show that eating disorders are more likely to occur in identical twins rather than fraternal twins.
Body Image (Women) Western culture tends to place more emphasis on a thin body image in comparison to other cultures.
Sexual Motivation Sexual motivation is nature’s clever way of making people procreate, enabling our species to survive. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MT0E72qnjro
The Physiology of Sex Masters and Johnson (1966) describe the human sexual response to consist of four phases:
Sexual Problems Men premature ejaculation and erectile disorder. Women: orgasmic disorders. Solution? 1) Behavior therapy drugs such as Viagra.
Hormones and Sexual Behavior Sex hormones affect the development of sexual characteristics and (especially in animals) activate sexual behavior.
Testosterone vs. Estrogen Testosterone increases male sex drives. Female animals “in heat” express peak levels of estrogen. Sex hormones may have milder effects on humans than on animals.
Kinsey Studies • Alfred Kinsey- biology professor in the 1940’s. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppZwSABxeYE • First large study on sexual practices • “Spectrum of Sexuality” Criticisms: -Nonrandom Sample -Leading Questions
External Stimuli Men become sexually aroused when browsing through erotic material. However, women experience similar heightened arousal under controlled conditions.
Imagined Stimuli Our imagination in our brain can influence sexual arousal and desire. Sotographs/The Gamma-Liaison Network/ Getty Images
Adolescent Sexuality When individuals reach adolescence, their sexual behavior develops. However, there are cultural differences. Sexual promiscuity in modern Western culture is much greater than in Arab countries and other Asian countries.