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Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East PowerPoint Presentation
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Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East

Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East

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Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East

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    1. Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East

    2. Uhuru: The Struggle for Independence in Africa The Colonial Legacy Benefits Transportation and communication Improved sanitation and health care Political systems contributed to gradual creation of democratic ideas Benefits varied Only South Africa and Algeria developed along modern lines Disadvantages Concentrate on export crops Plantation agriculture and cash crops

    3. The Rise of Nationalism Goal was independence Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972) formed the Convention Peoples Party in the Gold Coast (Ghana) Jomo Kenyatta (1894-1978) formed the Kenya African National Union with a political and economic agenda Mau Mau movement among the Kikuyu people of Kenya used terrorism to achieve uhuru (Swahili for freedom) African National Congress formed in 1912 Originally dominated by western-educated intellectuals Want economic and political reforms including equality for educated Africans

    4. The Rise of Nationalism Resistance to French rule in Algeria grew in mid-1950s -- independence gained in 1958 Struggle in Algeria affected Tunisia that was given independence in 1956 Morocco gained independence in 1956 Ghana (Gold Coast) gained independence in 1957 Followed by Nigeria, Belgian Congo, Kenya, Tanganyika (when joined by Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania)

    5. The Rise of Nationalism, contd Most French colonies agree to accept independence within the framework of the French Community By late 1960s only part of southern Africa and Portuguese Mozambique and Angola remained under European rule Why so slow in gaining independence? Colonialism was established later in Africa With only a few exception, coherent states with a strong sense of cultural, ethnic, and linguistic unity did not exist

    6. The Era of Independence Pan-Africanism and Nationalism: The Destiny of Africa Most new African leaders come from the urban middle class Accept the Western model -- capitalism and at least lip service to democracy Diverse views on economics Highly nationalistic Generally accept national boundaries These were artificial and contained diverse ethnic, linguistic, and territorial groups Organization of African Unity (1966) Pan-Africanism

    7. Dream and Reality: Political and Economic Conditions in Independent Africa Initial phase of pluralistic governments gave way to a series of military regimes Most African countries dependent on export of a single crop or natural resource In many instances, the resources still controlled by foreigners Neocolonialism Scarce natural resources spent on military equipment and expensive consumer goods Bribery and corruption Population growth Widespread hunger, HIV and AIDS Poverty, Effects of urbanization

    8. The Search for Solutions Desire to restrict foreign investment Tanzania: An African Route to Socialism Arusha Declaration, 1967 Limitations on income and established village collectives Corruption lower at first

    9. Modern Africa

    11. Kenya: The Perils of Capitalism Blessed with better soil in the highlands Tradition of aggressive commerce Residue of European settlers Foreign investment and profit incentives Capitalism with mixed results Substantial middle class based in Nairobi, the capital Landlessness, unemployment and income inequities are high 1/5 of population squatters Unemployment is 45%

    12. Kenya, contd One of the highest rate of population growth in world 3% annually 80% rural 40% live below poverty line Widespread unrest exacerbated by disputes between disparate ethnic groups and tensions between farmers and pastoralists Daniel arap Moi, authoritarian His rule was plagued by corruption Retired in 2002

    13. South Africa: An End to Apartheid Greatest success story Apartheid, segregation: white government restricted black sovereignty President F. W. de Klerk released ANC leader Nelson Mandela from prison Democratic national elections followed Mandela became president 1996, new constitution called for a multiracial state Thabo Mbeki replaced Mandela Rising unemployment Widespread lawlessness Chronic corruption Flight of capital and professionals Promise of land reform not fulfilled Wealthiest and most industrialized state in Africa Countrys black elite nearly of its wealthiest households

    14. Cape Town: A Tale of Two Cities

    15. Nigeria: A Nation Divided Africas largest country population Wealthiest because of oil reserves Under military strongmen: General Sani Abacha suppressed all opposition After his death, civilian government under Olusegun Obasanjo Imposition of Islamic law led to religious riots between Christians and Muslims Muslims farmers (pastoralists) compete for land with Christian farmers

    16. Sudan Southern Sudan Civil war between Christian farmers and Muslim pastoralists Central government in Khartoum supported pastoralist Peace agreement in 2004 Darfur, Western Sudan Conflict between Janjaweed ("devils on horseback"), (camel-herding Arabs), and farmers (land-tilling tribes) Central government in Khartoum supports the Janjaweed

    17. Central Africa: Cauldron of Conflict Rwanda and Burundi Civil war between minority Tutsis and Hutu majority thousands of refugees living in neighboring Congo Nomadic Tutsis, supported by Belgian government, dominated sedentary Hutus Zaire Conflict between Bantu-speaking Hutus who wanted to end Tutsi domination Laurent Kabila toppled General Mobutu Sese Seko Kabila renamed country The Democratic Republic of the Congo Promised a return to democratic practices Suppressed political dissent Kabila assassinated in 2001 His son succeeded him

    18. Sowing Seeds of Democracy Stagnant economies led to collapse of one-party regimes and emergence of fragile democracies End of dictatorships in Ethiopia, Liberia, and Somalia, but followed by political instability or civil war Senegal: elections in 2000 ended 40 year rule by the Socialist Party Uganda: most notorious dictator, Idi Amin led a military coup against prime Minister Milton Obote in 1971 Ruled by terror and brutal repression of dissident elements Deposed in 1979 1996 first presidential election

    19. African Union: A Glimmer of Hope African states poor, populations illiterate African concerns neglected by international community Millennium Declaration Reduction of poverty, hunger, illiteracy by 2015 Solutions must come from within Progress toward political stability in Senegal, Uganda, South Africa Sudan, Liberia, Somalia, and Zimbabwe racked by civil war or ruled by brutal dictatorships Conflicts between Muslims and Christians in West Africa threatens that region

    20. African Union Problem: nation-state system not well suited to African continent 1991, OAU established African Economic Community OAU replaced by African Union To provide greater political and economic integration throughout continent AU has sought to mediate several conflicts

    21. Continuity and Change in Modern Society Impact of the West Education Emphasis on vocational training Eventual introduction in European Languages and Western Culture State run schools: First the emphasis was on primary schools then high school and universities in the urban areas Funding and teachers are scarce in the rural areas Rural Life Agriculture and hunting Migrations to plantations, cities, and refugee camps

    22. Traditional Patterns in the Countryside

    23. African Women Change in relationship between men and women Traditional relationships Impact of Independence idea of sexual equality Politics still mostly men Women became a labor force, employed in menial tasks Education open to all but women comprise less than 20 percent of the students Rural women generally still bound by communalism Traditional practices still found

    24. African Culture Tension between tradition and modern, native and foreign, individual and communal Visual arts and Music Utility and ritual given way to pleasure and decoration African art preserves its traditional forms but adapted to serve tourist industry and export market

    25. African Literature Modern African literature Means to establish black dignity and purpose Chinua Achebe, first major African novelist to write in English, Things Fall Apart Writing from native perspective Shift from the brutality of the foreign oppressor to the shortcomings of the new native leadership Ngugi Wa Thiongo (b. 1938), A Grain of Wheat Wole Soyinka (b. 1934), The Interpreters Women writers Ama Ata Aidoo (b. 1042) Changes: A Love Story

    26. The Destiny of Africa African intellectuals torn between dual images of Western materialism and African negritude Destiny? Some yearn for dreams embodied in OAU Novelist Ngugi Wa Thiongo called for an internationalization of all the democratic and social struggles for human equality, justice, peace, and progress Others turn to democratic ideal of East Asian model

    27. Crescent of Conflict Militant Islam as a sense of community September 11, 2001 Humiliation and disgrace Modern regimes in Turkey and Iran More traditional in Saudi Arabia European influence and control The Question of Palestine Arab League, 1945 Zionists and an independent Jewish state, 1948 Sense of Wests betrayal of the interests of the Palestinian people Palestinian refugees cross into neighboring states Syria angered by the creation of Lebanon

    28. Nasser and Pan-Arabism King Farouk of Egypt overthrown in 1952 Monarchy replaced by a republic in 1953 General Gamal Abdul Nasser seizes power in 1954 Reforms Nationalizes the Suez Canal, 1956 Britain, France, Israel attack Egypt U.S. supports Nasser Pan-Arabism Egypt and Syria unite to form the United Arab Republic,1958 Other Arab states suspicious and do not join the union UAR ends in 1961 Palestine Liberation Organization created in 1964 Al-Fatah led by Yasir Arafat (b. 1929) launches terrorist attacks

    29. Arab-Israeli Dispute Growing hostility Knesset (parliament created) The Six Day War - June, 1967 Nasser died in 1970 and succeeded by Anwar al-Sadat (1918-1981) Yom Kippur War, 1973 The Camp David Agreement Sadat assassinated by Arab militants, October 1981

    30. Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) PLO and the Intifada (uprising) Terrorist attacks by Palestinians Minister Ehud Barak tried to re-start the peace process Peace process broke down by 2000 Hard-line prime minister, Ariel Sharon Suicide attacks by Palestinians against Israeli targets Intensive Israeli military crackdown Death of Yasir Arafat, 2004 Mahmoud Abbas, moderate Key issues unresolved: Future status of Jerusalem and Jewish settlements in occupied territories 2006, radical Muslim forces in southern Lebanon launched attacks on Israeli cities Israeli troops crossed border to wipe out radical stronghold

    31. The Temple Mount at Jerusalem

    33. Revolution in Iran Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919-1980), 1941-1979 Social and economic reforms Affluent middle class emerging Land reform Internal problems The Fall of the Shah Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini (1900-1989) Shiite cleric exiled to Iraq and then France Shah leaves the country in 1979 and the government collapsed shortly thereafter with a new government dominated by Khomeini American embassy hostages

    34. Iran Iranian Revolution moderated slightly but repression returned in mid-1990s Mohammad Khatemi, a moderate cleric Move to a more pluralistic society open to the outside world Reforms: easing of press censorship, dress codes, and womens activities Opposition from conservative elements 2003, student protests Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, militant Muslim fundamentalist elected Tensions with the West

    35. Iran

    36. Crisis in the Gulf Irans enemies were not just the U.S. but soviet Union to the north and Iraq to the west The Vision of Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein (b. 1937), 1979-2003 Believed in a single Arab state in the Middle East Persecuted non-Arab people: Persians and Kurds Sights to territorial expansion to the east Iraq and Iran uneasy relationship Religious differences (Irans mainly Shiite, ruling class Iraqis were Sunni) Perennial dispute over borderlands Kurdish revolt

    37. Iraq Iraq attacked Iran 10 year war Poison gas used against civilians Children employed to clear minefields 1988 cease-fire Iraqs occupation of Kuwait Operation Desert Storm U.S. assembled a multinational coalition and liberated Kuwait Economic sanctions imposed on Iraq as a condition of peace

    38. Iraq

    39. Conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq Response to the terrorist attacks of September, 2001 Nation controlled by the Taliban who provided a base for terrorist Osama bin Laden After September 11, 2001, coalition overthrows the Taliban and attempted to build a new and moderate government Challenge: history of internecine warfare among various tribal groups Bush government turned its attention to Iraq Alleging that Saddam Hussein provided support to bin Ladens terrorist; and Saddam had weapons of mass destruction American-led forces attached Iraq and overthrew Saddam Husseins regime Elections were held Saddam captured and executed Insurgency continues

    40. Afghanistan

    41. Society and Culture in the Contemporary Middle East Varieties of Government Traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia Some areas traditional authority replaced by one-party rule or military dictatorships Other states charismatic rule given way to modernizing bureaucratic regimes Israel, democratic institutions

    42. Economics of Oil Millions in the Middle East live in abject poverty, a fortunate few are wealthy; the difference is oil Economics and Islam Approaches to developing strong and stable economies Arab socialism Western capitalist model Maintaining Islamic doctrine Agricultural Policies Wealthiest hold much of the land Lack of water Migratory Workers Encouraged emigration Obstacles to Democracy Willingness of the West to coddle dictatorships to keep access to oil Culture of Islam

    43. Islamic Revival Many Muslims believe Islamic values and modern ways not incompatible and may be mutually reinforcing Fundamentalists are a rational and practical response to destabilizing forces and self-destructive practices Seeking a cultural identity Modernist Islam Create a modernized set of beliefs such as in Turkey, Egypt, and Iran Secularization Reaction to secularization in Iran where there was a movement to Islamic purity Seeking purity found in Algeria, Egypt, and Turkey

    44. Islamic Revival Return to Tradition Ayatollah Khomeini Iran had long tradition of Ideological purity within Shiite sect In Iran today, traditional Islamic beliefs are all-pervasive extending into education, clothing styles, social practices, and legal system Iranian ideas spread throughout the area Algeria: fundamental Islamic groups grew victory in 1992 Military cancelled second round of elections and cracked down on militants Campaign of terrorism against moderates

    45. Islamic Revival Egypt: Muslim Brotherhood assassinated Sadat and attacked foreign tourists Turkey: Islamic Welfare Party took power in 1996 Established a security relationship with Israel Seeks closer ties with U.S. Religious and economic discontent

    46. The Modern Middle East

    47. Women and Islam Traditional role of women in Islamic societies Modernist views that Islamic doctrine not opposed to womens rights Many restrictions due to pre-Islamic folk traditions that were tolerated in the early Islamic era More traditional views have prevailed in many Middle Eastern countries Impact of the Iranian Revolution Most conservative nation is Saudi Arabia Rights extended in some countries Vote in Kuwait Equal right to seek a divorce in Egypt Attend university, receive military training, vote, practice birth control, and publish fiction in Iran

    48. Literature and Art Cultural Renaissance Literature Iran one of the most prolific countries The veil (chador) a central metaphor in Iranian womens writing In Egypt the most illustrious writer is Naguib Mahfouz who wrote Cairo Trilogy Art Influenced by Western culture

    49. Answering the Call of the Muezzin

    50. Discussion Questions What role did nationalist movements play in the transition to independence in Africa? How have religious issues affected economic, social, and cultural conditions in the Middle East in recent decades? What factors can be advanced to explain the chronic instability and internal conflict that have characterized conditions in Africa and the Middle East since WW II?