ESPIONAGE, SEDITION AND ALIENS • ARTICLE I, SECTION 9, CLAUSE 2 OF THE CONSTITUTION: "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.” • 4THAMENDMENT: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
ESPIONAGE AND SEDITION • COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION: Censorship of the press and other vehicles of public information. • ESPIONAGE ACT of 1917: passed by Congress in 1917 after the United States entered the war. It prescribed a $10,000 fine and 20 years' imprisonment for interfering with the recruiting of troops or the disclosure of information dealing with national defense. • SEDITION ACTS of 1918: any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of government of the United States, or the Constitution of the United States, or the military or naval forces of the United States, or the flag of the United States, or the uniform of the Army or Navy of the United States, or any language intended to bring [any of the above] into contempt, scorn, contumely, or disrepute.
ALIENS • WOODROW WILSON’S WAR MESSAGE: • In his war message to Congress, President Wilson had warned that the war would require a redefinition of national loyalty. There were "millions of men and women of German birth and native sympathy who live amongst us," he said. "If there should be disloyalty, it will be dealt with a firm hand of repression."