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  1. Espionage World War I

  2. What is Espionage? • Intelligence activity that denotes the work of secret organizations whose task is to gather information by covert means. • Divides into 2 kinds of material and activities: foreign intelligence, and domestic intelligence. • Not single combat between two spies, Intelligence is just a part of a larger military framework.

  3. Types of Espionage • Positive Intelligence - Dealing with acquiring information. • Negative Intelligence - Dealing with manipulation of information that is broadcast.

  4. Pre-WWI • Before total war, many nations had either weak or small national, and foreign, intelligence communities.

  5. Triple Entente Intelligence • France – had trained intelligence forces, but no central agency had intelligence information, or distributed it. • Russia - had special agents of the Czar, and secret police forces, but no foreign intelligence. • Great Britain - well-developed military intelligence system, coordinated through the Office of Military Intelligence.

  6. Triple Alliance Intelligence • Germany - had the most developed, and extensive intelligence community. employed a network of spies and informants across the world. • Austria-Hungary – had a military code-breaking bureau before the war. Military intelligence bureau expanded during the pre-war period.

  7. Job Of Spies • Was primarily to gather information from figures of the other side. • Spies could pose as someone else, intercept communications (Mainly letters), or pass information. • They could attempt to intercept and decipher enemy codes.

  8. Example Of A WWI Spy • Frederick “Fritz” Joubert Duquesne • Spied for Germany during both World Wars. • In 1932 he was one of 32 member of the Duquesne Spy Ring who were convicted in the largest espionage conviction in the history of the United States. • Worked in Brazil planting time bombs on British Ships.

  9. Effects of War on Intelligence • The experience of the war formed the first modern intelligence services, serving as forbearers of the intelligence communities in France, Britain, Germany, and the Untied States today. • Intelligence and counter intelligence operations became very important in warfare.

  10. Effects Con. • World War I forced most national intelligence services to rapidly modernize. • Revised espionage and intelligence tradecraft to fit changing battlefield tactics and technological advances. • To protect America from acts of espionage Congress passed the  Espionage Statute of 1917 .

  11. Pre-WWII • Electronics rose to prominence quickly in World War II. • Increase in technology and new methods of communication meant new methods of spying. • In trench warfare, there was less opportunity for intelligence operations. In WWII, information on the other side was more a necessity.

  12. Enigma machine


  14. Espionage During WWII • Most espionage in World War II was conducted by "rings", or teams of agents such as: Duquesne Spy Ring Abwehr The Gestapo The Red Orchestra MI5

  15. During WWII con. • The goal of these spy rings was to obtain information about other nations, and of course, counter the intelligence rings of opposing nations. • In 1942 the British system was the keystone of Allied intelligence.

  16. Technological Espionage • New communication technology was becoming essential for fast communication in war. • A good way to know what the enemy’s intentions was to intercept this. • Therefore Intelligence centers needed to know about it and work with it.

  17. Operation Mincemeat • In 1943 an allied invasion of southern Europe was expected by Germany. The allies wished to convince Germany an attack wouldn’t come at the obvious target, Sicily. • The allies obtained a body, complete with papers hinting that an attack would come elsewhere. • “On May 12, 1934 Hitler stated “Measures regarding Sardinia and the Peloponese take precedence over everything else.” • On 9, 1943 the allied invasion of Sicily took place.

  18. Mincemeat Continued • 1954 book by Ewen Montagu and a 1956 World War II war film, based on the book and dramatizing actual events.

  19. Comparison

  20. The End

  21. Bibliography • Pictures From: • • • • Cohen, Daniel The Science of Spying. McGraw Hill Book Company. United States of America. 1977 • Nuutinen , Joni. 2005-2009 • The New York Times Company. 2009 • CBS CBS Interactive Inc . 2009 • "espionage." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. 2 Jun. 2009 <>.