Espionage World War I
What is Espionage? • Intelligence activity that denotes the work of secret organizations whose task is to gather information by covert means. • Divides into 2 kinds of material and activities: foreign intelligence, and domestic intelligence. • Not single combat between two spies, Intelligence is just a part of a larger military framework.
Types of Espionage • Positive Intelligence - Dealing with acquiring information. • Negative Intelligence - Dealing with manipulation of information that is broadcast.
Pre-WWI • Before total war, many nations had either weak or small national, and foreign, intelligence communities.
Triple Entente Intelligence • France – had trained intelligence forces, but no central agency had intelligence information, or distributed it. • Russia - had special agents of the Czar, and secret police forces, but no foreign intelligence. • Great Britain - well-developed military intelligence system, coordinated through the Office of Military Intelligence.
Triple Alliance Intelligence • Germany - had the most developed, and extensive intelligence community. employed a network of spies and informants across the world. • Austria-Hungary – had a military code-breaking bureau before the war. Military intelligence bureau expanded during the pre-war period.
Job Of Spies • Was primarily to gather information from figures of the other side. • Spies could pose as someone else, intercept communications (Mainly letters), or pass information. • They could attempt to intercept and decipher enemy codes.
Example Of A WWI Spy • Frederick “Fritz” Joubert Duquesne • Spied for Germany during both World Wars. • In 1932 he was one of 32 member of the Duquesne Spy Ring who were convicted in the largest espionage conviction in the history of the United States. • Worked in Brazil planting time bombs on British Ships.
Effects of War on Intelligence • The experience of the war formed the first modern intelligence services, serving as forbearers of the intelligence communities in France, Britain, Germany, and the Untied States today. • Intelligence and counter intelligence operations became very important in warfare.
Effects Con. • World War I forced most national intelligence services to rapidly modernize. • Revised espionage and intelligence tradecraft to fit changing battlefield tactics and technological advances. • To protect America from acts of espionage Congress passed the Espionage Statute of 1917 .
Pre-WWII • Electronics rose to prominence quickly in World War II. • Increase in technology and new methods of communication meant new methods of spying. • In trench warfare, there was less opportunity for intelligence operations. In WWII, information on the other side was more a necessity.
Espionage During WWII • Most espionage in World War II was conducted by "rings", or teams of agents such as: Duquesne Spy Ring Abwehr The Gestapo The Red Orchestra MI5
During WWII con. • The goal of these spy rings was to obtain information about other nations, and of course, counter the intelligence rings of opposing nations. • In 1942 the British system was the keystone of Allied intelligence.
Technological Espionage • New communication technology was becoming essential for fast communication in war. • A good way to know what the enemy’s intentions was to intercept this. • Therefore Intelligence centers needed to know about it and work with it.
Operation Mincemeat • In 1943 an allied invasion of southern Europe was expected by Germany. The allies wished to convince Germany an attack wouldn’t come at the obvious target, Sicily. • The allies obtained a body, complete with papers hinting that an attack would come elsewhere. • “On May 12, 1934 Hitler stated “Measures regarding Sardinia and the Peloponese take precedence over everything else.” • On 9, 1943 the allied invasion of Sicily took place.
Mincemeat Continued • 1954 book by Ewen Montagu and a 1956 World War II war film, based on the book and dramatizing actual events.
Bibliography • Pictures From: http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://girlspy.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/feinstein.jpg&imgrefurl=http://girlspy.wordpress.com/2008/07/03/genevieve-feinstein/&usg=__MC4_3Vrn8tObX2q9-mKIt6B15Go=&h=213&w=173&sz=8&hl=en&start=2&um=1&tbnid=uZGDIwark26udM:&tbnh=106&tbnw=86&prev=/images%3Fq%3DGenevieve%2BFeinstein%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 • http://www.emaramures.ro/userfiles/Image/Foto%20Istoria%20zilei/Iulie/25_07-Mata-Hari.jpg • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Man_Who_Never_Was • http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.fbi.gov/headlines/abwehr022704.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.fbi.gov/page2/feb04/nd022704.htm&usg=__h89xDZbutDBhls22Mk1L6xjI4s0=&h=206&w=275&sz=30&hl=en&start=2&um=1&tbnid=RYgKrzx0_oKM0M:&tbnh=85&tbnw=114&prev=/images%3Fq%3DAbwehr%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1C1CHMA_enCA322CA323%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 • Cohen, Daniel The Science of Spying. McGraw Hill Book Company. United States of America. 1977 • Nuutinen , Joni. http://hitlernews.cloudworth.com/intelligence-spy-spies-espionage.php. 2005-2009 • About.com http://womenshistory.about.com/od/spies/a/women_spies_ww_3.htm The New York Times Company. 2009 • CBS http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5211/is_2004/ai_n19126800/ CBS Interactive Inc . 2009 • "espionage." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 2 Jun. 2009 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.