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Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship PowerPoint Presentation
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Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

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Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

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  1. Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

  2. Competency 19.00 Describe the grading system for various feeder/finish livestock

  3. Objective 19.01 • Describe the grading system for various feeder/finish livestock

  4. Beef Cattle Classes • Age classes • Calves • less than one year of age • Cattle • One year or older • Veal calves • Less than three months old

  5. Beef Cattle Classes • Age classes continued • Slaughter calves • 3 months to one year old • Feeder calves • 6 months to one year old

  6. Beef Cattle Classes • Sex Classes • Steer • Male castrated before sexual maturity • Heifer • Has not had a calf or matured • Cow • Bull • Stag • Male castrated after sexual maturity

  7. High Quality Low Quality Beef Cattle Grades • Quality Grades • Prime • Choice • Select • Standard • Commercial • Utility • Cutter • Canner

  8. Beef Cattle Grades • Yield Grades • Yield Grade 1 • Yield Grade 2 • Yield Grade 3 • Yield Grade 4 • Yield Grade 5

  9. Beef Grades Quality Grade • Determined by: • Animal’s age • Muscling • Marbling

  10. Quality Grading Review • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ELUiG5ex4Vo

  11. Quality Grade (Beef) 1)Age and Class of Animal Steers and Heifers Prime, Choice, Good, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and Canner Cows All except Prime Bulls and Stags All except Prime and Choice

  12. Quality Grade (Beef) 2) Muscling • The amount and distribution of the finish • Firmness or fullness covering the animals body

  13. Prime Choice Select Standard Examples of Quality Grade (Beef)

  14. Quality Grade (Beef) 3) Marbling • Intermingling of fat with muscle fibers • Observed in the ribeye muscle between the 12th and 13th rib • Adequate marbling must be present for tenderness and high quality grades • The fat should not be soft and oily

  15. Marbling (Beef) Very Abundant Slight

  16. Marbling (Beef) Slight Marbling

  17. Marbling (Beef) Small Marbling

  18. Marbling (Beef) Modest Marbling

  19. Marbling (Beef) Moderate Marbling

  20. Marbling (Beef) Slightly Abundant Marbling

  21. Quality Grade (Beef) • Maximum age • Standard, Select, Choice, or Prime is 42 months or less • Commercial grade is over 42 months • Utility, Cutter, or Canner have no age limits • No Prime grade for slaughter cows

  22. Yield Grades (Beef) • Percentage of the carcass that is boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin, rib, and chuck • Numbered 1 to 5 • Yield 1 • Best muscling with least amount of fat • Yield 5 • Worst grade with the less muscle and more fat waste

  23. Yield Grading Review • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yWTeAqyh66s

  24. Yield Grades (Beef) Relationship of Yield Grades and Cutability Yield Grade- % Boneless, Closely Trimmed Retail CutsFrom the Round, Loin, Rib and Chuck 1 52.6 - 54.6 2 50.3 - 52.3 3 48.0 - 50.0 4 45.7 - 47.7 5 43.3 - 45.4

  25. Yield Grades (Beef) The terms "yield" and "yield grade" should not be confused. "Yield" alone means dressing percentage (carcass weight divided by live weight multiplied by 100), and is not directly related to yield grades or cutability.

  26. Yield Grades (Beef) • Adjusted fat thickness- External fat is measured at the 12th rib • Percentage of Kidney, Pelvic and Heart Fat (KPH)- A subjective estimate of fat • Rib Eye Area • Hot Carcass Weight

  27. Yield Grades (Beef) USDA yield grades estimate the quantity of edible meat from the major wholesale cuts--round, loin, rib and chuck

  28. Yield Grades (Beef) • USDA yield grades estimate the quantity of edible meat from the major wholesale cuts--round, loin, rib and chuck

  29. Yield Grades (Beef)

  30. Beef Cattle Grades • Slaughter Cattle Grades • Both quality and yield grades • Feeder Cattle Grades (graded based on visual appraisal) • Determined by: • Frame size • Muscle thickness • Thriftiness

  31. Feeder Cattle • Animals are divided into three groups- calves, yearlings and older feeders based on their age and weight. • Feeder animals weigh between 350 to 1,000lbs. • Feeder cattle grades are the basis for reporting market prices for cattle. • Three factors are used to determine the grade of feeder cattle: • Thriftiness, Frame Size, Thickness

  32. Feeder Cattle • Thriftiness- the apparent health of the animal and its potential to fatten and grow normally. • Thickness- development of muscle in relation the size of the skeleton. • US No. 1- slightly thick throughout, moderate width between legs. • US No. 2- narrow throughout, legs set close together, back and loin have sunken appearance. • US No. 3- less thickness and width between legs than No. 2.

  33. Feeder Cattle Grades • Each USDA Grade has: • Large Frame • Medium Frame • Small Frame

  34. Feeder Cattle Grades • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPJ5cslT574

  35. Slaughter Steer and Heifer Grades • USDA Quality grades from Prime down to Canner • About 80% of grain fed beef animals have a quality grade of choice. • USDA Yield grades from Yield Grade 1 down to Yield Grade 5

  36. Great information to help with evaluating cattle • http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agripedia/agmania/Livestock/steers.asp

  37. Swine Classes • Use Classes • Slaughter • To be killed and sold as meat • Feeder • To be feed to heavier weights before slaughter

  38. Swine Classes • Sex Classes • Barrow • Male castrated before sexual maturity • Gilt • Young female that has not had pigs • Sow • Boar • Stag

  39. Swine Grades • Slaughter swine • Quality and Yield determine USDA grades • U.S. Number 1 • U.S. Number 2 • U.S. Number 3 • U.S. Number 4 • U.S. Utility • Feeder swine • Grades determined by slaughter potential and thriftiness

  40. Feeder pig grading U.S.No.3 U.S.No.4 U.S. No.1 U.S. No. 2

  41. CEV • Muscling

  42. Feeder Swine • Five U.S Grades (1,2,3,4, Utility, and Cull) • We will discuss each grade in detail in a minute • U. S. No. 1 • Has thick muscling, large frame, and is trim. • Utility/Cull • Diseased or unthrifty • Has a head that appears too big for the body and has wrinkled skin. • Potential for feeding out to slaughter weight and grade affects feeder pig grades

  43. Feeder Swine • USDA No. 1 Feeder Pig- large frame, thick muscled animal that is trim. Legs set wide apart and ham is wider than loin. • USDA No. 2 Feeder Pig- moderately large frame with moderate muscling. Animal is slightly fatter than No. 1. • USDA No. 3 Feeder Pig- slightly smaller frame with thin muscling. Ham and loin are about the same width. Legs are fairly close together.

  44. CEV • Frame size

  45. Feeder Swine • USDA No. 4 Feeder Pig- small frame with thin muscling. Ham and loin are same width. Back is flat. Ham will show signs of too much fat. • USDA Utility Feeder Pig- animal shows unthriftiness because of disease or poor care. Skin is wrinkled and head appears too large for the rest of the body. • USDA Cull Feeder Pig- animal is “unthrifty.” It has poor appearance that indicates improper care and disease. The head appears too big for the body and has wrinkled skin.

  46. Feeder pig grading U.S.No.3 U.S.No.4 U.S. No.1 U.S. No. 2

  47. CEV • Size and Scale

  48. Slaughter Barrows and Gilts! • USDA grades from U.S. No. 1 down to U.S. No. 4, then Utility • Muscling • thick • average • thin • Thick muscling helps offset backfat thickness. • United States No. 1 hog must have at least average muscling.

  49. Swine Grades – Slaughter Swine • Quality Grade • Determined by the percent of carcass weight of the: • Ham • Loin • Boston butt • Picnic shoulder • Yield • Determined by backfat and degree of muscling