New State Governments • Colonies became states • Wrote new constitutions (1st time in history people had written down the rules under which they would be governed)
Forming a Republic • The Articles of Confederation - written in 1777 by the Second Continental Congress as the first independent government of the United States of America (.IT WAS OFFICIALLY ADOPTED IN 1781). • U.S. had a national government, but the States had most of the power • Most people didn’t trust a national government ( wanted the states to have most of the power
Articles of Confederation Accomplishments -Gave the new national gov’t the power to declare war -Make peace & sign treaties -Borrow money -Set standards for coins and for weights & measures -Establish a postal service -Deal with Native American peoples Weaknesses -Congress could not enact and collect taxes -Congress could not regulate interstate/foreign trade -Regardless of population, each state had ONE vote in Congress -2/3 majority – 9 out of 13 states needed to agree to pass any law (1 vote per state) -Articles could be amended only if all states approved -There was no executive branch to enforce the laws of Congress -There was no national court system to settle legal disputes -There were 13 separate states that lacked national unity
The Articles Confederation Successes and Problems
Moving Westward • Daniel Boone oversaw the construction of a wagon road over the Appalachian Matins. (Wilderness Road) • Went though the Cumberland into the land the Iroquois called Kentake “Kentucky” • 1000s of settlers settled south of the Ohio River (Indians remained strong in the north) • Area was called the Northwest Territory
Governing the Northwest Territory • Thomas Jefferson wanted to divide the land into 14 rectangular territories - People objected because they wanted state boundaries based on natural features - Easterners didn’t want too many states in the West (Afraid the West would gain control of the Government) • Land Ordinance of 1785 – dealt more with selling the property than governing it - Government needed money to pay off nation’s debts) - Called for the land to be surveyed and sold to the highest bidder
Governing the Northwest Territory • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – dealt with governing the territory - Congress would choose a Governor and 3 judges to rule the territory - Over time the territory would be divided into no fewer than 3 and no more than 5 states • - Citizens had freedom of religion and speech, right to trial by jury, and protection from unfair punishments - Settlers had to treat Indians fairly - Slavery was banned in the territory • Northwest Ordinance became a model used for the settlement of other territories
EOCT Review • SSUSH6: The student will analyze the nature of territorial and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation. • Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states. • 26. What was the Northwest Ordinance? • 27. How did it affect westward expansion? • 28. How did it deal with: • - Slavery? • - Education? • -New States?
Moving Toward Greater Equality • Republicanism– Feeling that citizens must have certain virtues in order for a country to succeed • Laws punishing people for religion were changed • Governments stopped supporting churches with tax money • People began to value education Men and Women’s - Successful nations need educated citizens - New secondary schools, colleges, and state universities were started - Women’s education also became important (needed education to properly raise children) Anti-slavery movement grew after the Revolutionary war - Many people began feeling that it was against new nation’s ideals - Several colonies restricted slavery
Troubled Government (Articles of Confederation) • National Government didn’t have power to tax couldn’t pay debts • Couldn’t earn the respect of other nations ( shut out of trade patterns) • Disputes between states – didn’t have a court to settle disputes • People began to realize that the national government needed more power (became afraid that the 13 states would become separate nations
Foreign-Relations Problem • U.S. did not pay debts to British merchants or compensate Loyalists • In retaliation, Britain refused to evacuate forts on Great Lakes • 1784 - Spain closed Mississippi River to American navigation • Westerners were unable to ship crops east through New Orleans • Congress was unable to resolve problems with foreign nations
Borrowers Versus Lenders • Creditors favored high taxes so they would be paid back • Taxes put farmers in debt; many lost land and livestock • Debtors wanted large supply paper money; creditors wanted small supply
Articles Fail • The Articles of Confederation created only a loose alliance among the states. • The Articles did not grant enough power to the Federal Government preventing it from being able to enforce laws. • This was evident during Shay’s Rebellion.
Shays Rebellion • Led by Daniel Shays • The state of Massachusetts placed a large tax on farmers • outlawed paper money • Had strict laws concerning debt • Farmers Couldn’t pay debts • 80 % of people in jail were there because of debt • Angry mob of farmers protested and stopped sale of farms for nonpayment of debts • Protest was defeated by state militia • People began to worry about future rebellions • Government didn’t have the power to stop the rebellions
Vocabulary • Northwest Territory- Area that included modern-day Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, & Indiana • Land Ordinance - This dealt more with selling the property than governing it • Northwest Ordinance - said that once territories met certain requirements, then they could become states. Became a model used for the settlement of other territories • The Articles of Confederation – The United States first form of government. It established a “firm league of friendship” where the states had most of the power. • Shay’s Rebellion – Protest in Massachusetts against the arrest and seizure of property of farmers who could not pay their debts. This event showed that the Federal government was too weak and needed to be strengthened.
EOCT REVIEW • SSUSH5: The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. • Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government. 1. What were the Articles of Confederation? 2. What were the weaknesses of the AOC? 3. What was Shay’s Rebellion? 4. How did the rebellion show the weaknesses of the AOC?
Annapolis Convention • Lawmakers from Virginia called for a meeting of the states delegates - Wanted to discuss trade disputes between the states - Only 5 states sent delegates • Alexander Hamilton and James Madison persuaded other delegates that little could be done since only 5 states sent delegates
Annapolis Convention • Hamilton wrote a report saying what he thought was wrong with the Articles of Confederation - Couldn’t negotiate trade - Couldn’t settle disputes between states - Couldn’t pay its debts - Couldn’t tax in order to solve these problems • Hamilton called for a special convention to consider ways to strengthen the government - Delegates at Annapolis voted to support Hamilton’s report
Constitutional Convention • Summer 1787 – Independence Hall in Philadelphia • 12 states sent delegates (Rhode Island didn’t send delegates) • Original; purpose was to discuss way to fix the Article of Confederation • The 55 delegates were among the most educated in America - Called the “Founding Fathers or Framers” - George Washington Voted President of the convention
Constitutional Convention • Delegates decided to keep all of their discussions secret (nailed the windows shut) • Most of our records come from James Madison’s notes • James Madison – known as the “Father of the Constitution” - Many of its principles are based on his ideas • Delegates had to develop a strong government without infringing on people’s liberties
Virginia Plan • Developed by James Madison • It was a plan for entirely new form of government - Delegates voted to expand the original goal of the convention to consider the plan • Plan called for 3 branches of federal government - Legislative – makes laws - Executive – enforces laws - Judicial – interprets laws • Plan called for Congress to be made up of two houses (bicameral) - Lower House - elected directly by the people - Lower house would elect a 2nd Upper House • Some people believed that ordinary people couldn’t be trusted to elect good representatives • Representation in Congress was to be based on population (favors large states)
New Jersey • Developed by William Patterson • Plan called for Legislature to have only one house (unicameral) • Each state would send the same number of representatives (regardless of population) • Small states would have as many votes as large states
Vocabulary • Constitutional Convention - Meeting that took place in 1787, where delegates from each state met to create a new form of government. • Framers - The founding fathers that helped lay the foundations of our government • Virginia Plan - Proposal at the Constitutional Convention where both houses would be based on population for representation. • Bicameral Legislature - A legislative body set up with two houses. • New Jersey Plan - Proposal at the Constitutional Convention where the Senate would be based on equal representation. • Unicameral Legislature - Legislative body that is comprised of one house.
The Great Compromise • Developed by Roger Sherman from Connecticut • Legislature would have 2 houses • People would be represented in the lower house (House of Representatives) - Based on population (larger states have more representatives) - 2 year terms • States would be represented in the upper house (Senate) - Every state would have the same number of representatives (2 per state ) - 6 year terms
Vocabulary • Great Compromise - Plan at the Constitutional Convention with a bicameral legislature. One house is based on population and the other equal representation. • Senate - Branch of Congress in which representation is based on equal representation. • House of Representatives - The House in Congress where members serve two year terms and each state’s representation is based upon in population. • U.S. Constitution – Fundamental political principles on which a state is governed, esp when considered as embodying the rights of the subjects of that state The written contract between the government and the people of the United States. • James Madison – He is known as the “Father of the Constitution” and later served as 4th president of the United States
THE DELEGATES AGREED ON TWO HOUSES IN CONGRESS, THE SENATE AND THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. THE SENATE WOULD HAVE EQUAL REPRESENTATION, MEANING EVERY STATE WAS ALLOTTED 2 SENATORS. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES WOULD BE BASED ON POPULATION AND THEREFORE THE NUMBER WOULD VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
Three-Fifths Compromise • North didn’t want south to count slaves as part of their population - Counting slaves would give the southern states more representatives House of Representatives - North said that they shouldn’t count since they didn’t vote • Delegates worked out compromise ( 5 slaves counted as 3 persons)
THREE-FIFTHS COMPROMISE, SLAVE TRADE, AND FUGITIVE SLAVES THE SOUTHERN STATES WERE ALLOWED TO COUNT SLAVES AS 3/5 OF A PERSON FOR REPRESENTATION PURPOSES IN THE HOUSE. SLAVES WERE ALSO COUNTED TO DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF FEDERAL TAXES OWED BY EACH OF THE SOUTHERN STATES. THE SLAVE TRADE WAS ALLOWED TO CONTINUE UNTIL 1808, HOWEVER ALL OF THE NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS EXCEPT GEORGIA’S BANNED OVERSEAS SLAVE TRADE. ARTICLE I SECTION 2 Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. ARTICLE I Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. ARTICLE IV SECTION 2 No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due. CLAUSE ON ESCAPED SLAVES
Trade • Delegates debated how much control the national government should have on trade • Delegates agreed that national government should control trade between states • North also wanted National Gov. to control foreign trade - Gov. allowed to tax imports (tariff) • Congress could end slave trade in 20 years
Executive • Decided that the Executive branch would be headed by one person • Congress had power to impeach President if needed • President would be chosen by the Electoral College - Many delegates didn’t trust the judgment of the people to elect the President • States Electoral votes = number of Senators + Number of representatives in the House
Vocabulary • Slave Trade Compromise - Compromise during the Constitutional Convention where Southern States agreed to end the slave trade by 1808. • Three Fifths Compromise - Slaves would only count as a fraction for the South’s population for representation in congress. • Slavery – System in which African American were bought, sold, & owned like property.
EOCT REVIEW • Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers, limited government, and the issue of slavery. 13. What was the Great Compromise? How did satisfy both large and small states?14. How did the Constitution deal with slavery? 15. How did the Constitution deal with separation of powers? 16. How did the Constitution deal with limited government?
A Federal System • Federalism – sharing of power between a federal government and state governments
Federalists v. Anti-federalists Federalist • This was made up of the people that supported a strong central government and the constitution. • Alexander Hamilton and James Madison were the key leaders. Anti-Federalist • This was made up of the people that supported states rights and the addition of the Bill of Rights. • Thomas Jefferson was the key leader for the Anti-federalists.
DEBATE OVER RATIFICATION FEDERALISTS ADVOCATED A STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT NATIONAL SUPREMACY IN FAVOR OF RATIFICATION BILL OF RIGHTS UNNECESSARY SINCE GOVERNMENT HAD LIMITED POWERS MADISON, HAMILTON, JAY ANTIFEDERALISTS IN FAVOR OF STRONG STATE GOVERNMENTS STATE SUPREMACY AGAINST RATIFICATION BILL OF RIGHTS ESSENTIAL TO GUARANTEE CITIZEN’S RIGHTS MASON, CLINTON, HENRY
The Federalist • 85 essays titled The Federalist defended the new Constitution • Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists • Federalist Response: • Constitution will give national govt. enough power to solve the country’s problems. • System of checks and balances will limit President’s power. • Bill of Rights will protect citizens’ freedom. • Country is too big to be dominated by any one faction. • Anti-Federalists Concern: • Constitution will give national govt. too much power. • President will be just like a king. • Individual liberties will be threatened by a powerful govt. • Federal govt. could come under control of one powerful faction.
States Decide • Delaware– 1st state to ratify the constitution • New Hampshire was the 9th state (made it law) • Virginia and New York were 10th and 11th - Government couldn’t succeed without these two states • Rhode Island – last state to ratify the constitution • CONSTITUTION SIGNED 1787 IN PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA • Federalist had to promise to add a Bill of Rights to convince states to ratify Constitution
IN ORDER TO RATIFY THE CONSTITUTION TWO-THIRDS OF THE STATES, NINE, HAD TO APPROVE IT. THE PROCESS BEGAN IN DECEMBER OF 1787 WITH STATE CONVENTIONS SOME OF WHICH WERE HEATED DEBATES AND OTHERS WERE UNANIMOUSLY IN FAVOR.
Vocabulary • Federalism – sharing of power between a federal government and state governments • Federalists - This was made up of the people that supported a strong central government and the constitution. Alexander Hamilton and James Madison were the key leaders. • Anti-Federalists - This was made up of the people that supported states rights and the addition of the Bill of Rights. Thomas Jeffersonwas the key leader • States’ Rights - the rights and powers generally conceded to the states, or all those powers claimed for the states under some interpretations of the Constitution • The Federalist - 85 essays titled defended the new Constitution • Ratify - To approve
Bill of Rights • Bill of Rights (added in 1791) - 1st ten amendments guarantee certain rights to all citizens • Amendment I - Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and PetitionCongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. • Amendment II - Right to keep and bear armsA well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. • Amendment III - Conditions for quarters of soldiersNo Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Bill of Rights • Amendment IV - Right of search and seizure regulatedThe right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. • Amendment V - Provisons concerning prosecutionNo person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.