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Chapter 17

Chapter 17. Depreciation. #17. Depreciation. Learning Unit Objectives. Concepts of Depreciation and the Straight-Line Method. LU17.1. Explain the concept and causes of depreciation Prepare a depreciation schedule and calculate partial-year depreciation. #17. Depreciation.

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Chapter 17

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1. Chapter 17 Depreciation

2. #17 Depreciation Learning Unit Objectives Concepts of Depreciation and the Straight-Line Method LU17.1 Explain the concept and causes of depreciation Prepare a depreciation schedule and calculate partial-year depreciation

3. #17 Depreciation Learning Unit Objectives Units-of-Production Method LU17.2 Explain how use affects the units-of-production method Prepare a depreciation schedule

4. #17 Depreciation Learning Unit Objectives Sum-of-the-Years’-Digits Method LU17.3 Explain how to use the fraction in the sum-of-the-years’-digits method Prepare a depreciation schedule

5. #17 Depreciation Learning Unit Objectives Declining-Balance Method LU17.4 Explain the importance of residual value in the depreciation schedule Prepare a depreciation schedule

6. #17 Depreciation Learning Unit Objectives Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) with Introduction to ACRS LU17.5 Explain the goals of ACRS and MACRS and their limitations Calculate depreciation using the MACRS guidelines

7. Concept of Depreciation Accumulated Depreciation - The total amount of the asset’s depreciation taken to date Depreciation - An estimate of the use or deterioration of an asset Estimated Useful Life - Number of years or time periods for which the company can be use the asset Asset Cost - Amount paid for an asset including freight charges

8. Concept of Depreciation Book Value - The unused amount of the asset cost that may be depreciated in future accounting periods Book Value = Asset cost - Accumulated Book value Residual Value (Salvage Value) - Expected cash value at the end of an assets useful life. Book value cannot be less than residual value

9. Causes of Depreciation Product Obsolescence Physical Deterioration

10. Straight-Line Method Distributes the same amount of expense to each period of time Depreciation expense = Cost - Residual value each year Estimated useful life in years Sam’s delivery company buys a new truck to make deliveries. The truck cost \$20,000, the estimated useful life is 5 years. After 5 years the residual value is \$1,000. Calculate depreciation expense and complete a depreciation schedule. 100% = 100% = 20% # of yrs. 5 \$20,000 - \$1,000 = \$3,800 5

11. Depreciation Schedule Book value at end Depreciation Accumulated of year (Cost - End of Cost of expense for depreciation Accumulated year equipment year at end of year depreciation) 1 \$20,000 \$3,800 \$ 3,800 \$16,200 2 \$20,000 \$3,800 \$ 7,600 \$12,400 3 \$20,000 \$3,800 \$11,400 \$ 8,600 4 \$20,000 \$3,800 \$15,200 \$ 4,800 5 \$20,000 \$3,800 \$19,000 \$ 1,000 Equals Residual Value

12. Depreciation for Partial Years 15th Rule Assume Sam’s Delivery bought the truck August 10th. What would be depreciation for t he first year? Depreciation expense = Cost - Residual value each year Estimated useful life in years \$20,000 - \$1,000 = \$3,800 x 5 = \$1583.33 5 12 Aug, Sept., Oct., Nov., & Dec.

13. Units-of-Production Method Depreciation determined by how much the company uses the asset Depreciation expense = Cost - Residual value per unit Total estimated units produced Depreciation = Unit x Units amount depreciation produced Sam’s delivery company buys a new truck to make deliveries. The truck cost \$20,000, the estimated useful life is 100,000 miles. After 5 years the residual value is \$1,000. Calculate depreciation expense and complete a depreciation schedule.

14. Depreciation Schedule Depreciation Accumulated Book value End of Cost of Units expense for depreciation at end year equipment prod. year at end of year of year 1 \$20,000 20,000 \$3,800 \$ 3,800 \$16,200 2 \$20,000 15,000 \$2,850 \$ 6,650 \$13,350 3 \$20,000 25,000 \$4,750 \$11,400 \$ 8,600 4 \$20,000 22,000 \$4,180 \$15,580 \$ 4,420 5 \$20,000 18,000 \$3,420 \$19,000 \$ 1,000 \$20,000 - \$1,000 = \$.19 per unit 100,000 15,000 x \$.19

15. Sum-of-the-Years’ Digits Method Accelerated depreciation method which computes more depreciation expense in the early years of the asset’s life Depreciation = (Cost - Residual value) x Remaining life expense Sum-of-the-Years’ Digits Sum of the asset’s service life 5+4+3+2+1=15 or N(N+1) = 5(5+1) = 30 = 15 2 2 2 Sam’s delivery company buys a new truck to make deliveries. The truck cost \$20,000, the estimated useful life is 5 years. After 5 years the residual value is \$1,000. Calculate depreciation expense and complete a depreciation schedule.

16. Depreciation Schedule Depreciation Accumulated Book value End of Cost - Fraction expense for depreciation at end year Res. Value for year year at end of year of year 1 \$19,000 5/15 \$6,333.33 \$6,333.33 \$13,666.67 2 \$19,000 4/15 \$5,066.67 \$11,400 \$8,600 3 \$19,000 3/15 \$3,800 \$15,200 \$4,800 4 \$19,000 2/15 \$2,533.33 \$17,733.33 \$2,266.67 5 \$19,000 1/15 \$1,266.67 \$19,000 \$1,000 \$19,000 x 4 15 \$20,000 - \$1,000 = \$19,000

17. Declining-Balance Method Accelerated method which computes more depreciation expense in the early years of the asset’s life. Uses up to twice the straight-line rate Rate = 100% x 2 = 40% 5 years Depreciation expense = Book value of equip. x Depreciation each year at beginning of year rate Sam’s delivery company buys a new truck to make deliveries. The truck cost \$20,000, the estimated useful life is 5 years. After 5 years the residual value is \$1,000. Calculate depreciation expense and complete a depreciation schedule.

18. Depreciation Schedule Rate = 100% x 2 = 40% 5 years AccumulatedBook value at Depreciation Accumulated Book value End of Cost of depreciation beginning expense for depreciation at end year Truck at beg. of year of year year at end of year of year 1 \$20,000 0 \$20,000 \$8,000 \$ 8,000 \$12,000 2 \$20,000 \$ 8,000 \$12,000 \$4,800 \$12,800 \$7,200 3 \$20,000 \$12,800 \$ 7,200 \$2,880 \$15,680 \$4,320 4 \$20,000 \$15,680 \$ 4,320 \$1,728 \$17,408 \$2,592 5 \$20,000 \$17,408 \$ 2,592 \$1,036.80 \$18,444.80 \$1,555.20* \$12,000 x .40 *Since we do not reach the residual value of \$1,000 another \$555.20 could have been taken as depreciation expense to bring it to the estimated residual value of \$1,000

19. Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) with Introduction to (ACRS) Federal tax laws state how depreciation must be taken for income tax purposes Provides users with tables giving the useful lives of various assets and the depreciation rates

20. Key points of MACRS 1. It calculates depreciation for tax purposes. 2. It ignores residual value. 3. Depreciation if the first year (for personal property) is based on the assumption that the asset was purchased halfway through the year. (A new law adds a midquarter convention for all personal property if more than 40% is placed in service during the last 3 months of the taxable year.) 4. Classes 3,5,7, and 10 use a 200% declining-balance method for a period of years before switching to straight-line depreciation. You do not have to determine the year in which to switch since Table 17.6 builds this into the calculation. 5. Classes 15 and 20 use a 150% declining-balance method before switching to straight-line depreciation. 6. Classes 27.5 and 31.5 use straight-line depreciation.

21. Table 17.5 - Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) Class recovery Period (life)Asset types 3-year Racehorses more than 2 years old or any horse other than a racehorse that is more than 12 years old at the time place into service special tools of certain industries. 5-year Automobiles (not luxury) taxis; light general purpose trucks; semiconductor manufacturing equipment computer-based telephone central-office switching equipment qualified technological equipment; property used in connection with research and experimentation. 7-year Railroad track single-purpose agricultural (pigpens), or horticultural; structures; fixtures; equipment; furniture. 10-year New law doesn’t add any specific property under this class. 15-year Municipal wastewater treatment plants; telephone distribution plants and comparable equipment used for two-way exchange of voice and data communications. 20-year Municipal sewers. 27.5-year Only residential property. 31.5-year Only nonresidential real property.

22. Table 17.6 - Annual Recovery for MACRS

23. Depreciation Schedule Depreciation Accumulated Book value End of Cost of expense for depreciation at end year equipment year at end of year of year 1 \$20,000 \$4,000 \$4,000 \$16,000 (\$20,000 x .20) 2 \$20,000 \$6,400 \$10,400 \$9,600 (\$20,000 x .32) 3 \$20,000 \$3,840 \$14,240 \$5,760 4 \$20,000 \$2,304 \$16,544 \$3,456 5 \$20,000 \$2,304 \$18,848 \$1,152 6 \$20,000 \$1,152 \$20,000 \$ 0

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