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# Chapter 17

Chapter 17. Mechanical Waves &amp; Sound. Waves. A repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space. A wave will travel as long as it has energy. Mechanical Waves. Mechanical Wave: is a disturbance in matter that carries energy from one place to another.

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## Chapter 17

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1. Chapter 17 Mechanical Waves & Sound

2. Waves • A repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space. • A wave will travel as long as it has energy.

3. Mechanical Waves • Mechanical Wave: is a disturbance in matter that carries energy from one place to another. • Mechanical waves require matter to travel • Medium: is a material (matter) that mechanical waves travel through solid liquid or gas. • Ex. Air, water, aluminum, copper, • The speed of mechanical waves changes with different mediums

4. Mechanical wave is created when a source of energy causes a vibration to travel through a medium • Vibration: a repeating motion that follows a pattern • Sound is created by vibrations • Vocal cords

5. There are 3 types of mechanical waves • Transverse waves • Longitudinal waves/ Compressional • Surface waves Longitudinal Transverse

6. Transverse waves: is a wave that causes the medium to vibrate at right angles (perpendicular) to the direction in which the wave travels • Up & Down, or Side to Side motion • Draw a picture of a transverse wave • Ex. • Water • Rope • Slinky • Electromagnetic (radio waves, infrared, etc)

7. B. Transverse Waves • Transverse Waves • medium moves perpendicular to the direction of wave motion

8. Crest: is the highest point above the resting position (top of the wave) • Trough: is the lowest point below the resting position (bottom of the wave) • Resting position: is the flat position of a wave before it starts moving • Slinky demo

9. crests wavelength amplitude amplitude nodes wavelength troughs B. Transverse Waves • Wave Anatomy corresponds to the amount of energy carried by the wave

10. Longitudinal waves: is a wave in which the vibration of the medium travels parallel to the direction of the wave\ • Slinky demo • Compression: a part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are pushed closely together • Rarefaction: a part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are spaced farther apart

11. C. Longitudinal Waves • Longitudinal Waves (a.k.a. compressional) • medium moves in the same direction as wave motion

12. compression wavelength rarefaction wavelength C. Longitudinal Waves • Wave Anatomy Amount of compression corresponds to amount of energy AMPLITUDE.

13. Draw a longitudinal wave • Ex. of longitudinal waves • Sound

14. Surface wave: is a wave that has characteristics of both transverse and longitudinal waves • Up & down movement like a transverse • Parallel movement of energy like longitudinal • Ex. • Ocean Waves • Earthquakes (waves through Earth’s surface)

15. Properties of Waves • Periodic Motion: is motion that follows a repeating pattern • Period: the time period for one interval of movement • Frequency: is the number of complete cycles that pass a point in a given amount of time • Frequency of waves are measured in hertz (Hz)

16. http://www.kettering.edu/physics/drussell/Demos/waves/wavemotion.htmlhttp://www.kettering.edu/physics/drussell/Demos/waves/wavemotion.html

17. Wavelength: is the distance of a complete cycle (either crest to crest or trough to trough) • Long wavelength = low frequency • Short wavelength = high frequency

18. 1 second D. Measuring Waves • Frequency( f ) • # of waves passing a point in 1 second • Hertz (Hz) • shorter wavelength = higher frequency = higher energy

19. D. Measuring Waves • Velocity ( v ) • speed of a wave as it moves forward • depends on wave type and medium V:velocity (m/s) λ:wavelength (m) ƒ: frequency (Hz) v =wave λ× f

20. v f λ D. Measuring Waves • EX: Find the velocity of a wave in a wave pool if its wavelength is 3.2 m and its frequency is 0.60 Hz. WORK: v = λ × f v = (3.2 m)(0.60 Hz) v= 1.92 m/s GIVEN: v = ? λ= 3.2 m f = 0.60 Hz

21. v f λ D. Measuring Waves • EX: An earthquake produces a wave that has a wavelength of 417 m and travels at 5000 m/s. What is its frequency? WORK: f = v ÷ λ f = (5000 m/s) ÷ (417 m) f= 12 Hz GIVEN: λ= 417 m v = 5000 m/s f = ?

22. Wave Speed = wavelength X frequency • Wave speed changes in different mediums • If waves are traveling the same speed, then wavelength and frequency are INDIRECTLY related

23. Amplitude: is the distance from the resting position to either a crest or trough • Energy and amplitude are DIRECTLY related • High energy = high amplitude • Low energy = low amplitude • Amplitude in sound is called volume

24. Light waves travel faster than sound • Sound waves travel faster in liquids and solids than gas • Light waves travel faster in gases and vacuums than in liquids an solids.

25. Behavior of Waves • Reflection: is when a wave bounces off a surface it can not pass through • Reflection does not change the speed or frequency (the wave can be flipped upside down or side to side) Ex. Mirror • Law of Reflection: the angle of incidence (incoming wave) = the angle of reflection (outgoing wave) • All waves can be reflected • The reflection of sound is called an echo

26. reflection

27. Reflection terms normal

28. Refraction: is the bending of a wave as it enters a new medium • Ex. light waves • Ruler in a beaker of water • Ex. sound waves • Listening to sound underwater

29. Diffraction: is the bending of a wave as is moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening • Page 510 • Eddy: is an area behind a mid-stream boulder where the water flows in a reverse direction (provides safety for rafters) • Chute: is an area of a river where the water is constricted to a narrow passage

30. defraction

31. Constructive Interference: is when 2 or more waves combine to form a wave with a larger displacement (amplitude)

32. Destructive interference: is when 2 or more waves combine to form a wave with a smaller displacement (amplitude) add together

33. Standing wave: is wave or waves that appear to stay in the same place • Plucking a guitar string • Waves in a river • Node: is the point on a standing wave where there is no displacement (amplitude) • Antinodes: are the crests and the troughs on a standing wave

34. 17.4 Sound Waves • Sound waves are longitudinal waves • The speed of sound changes due to different types of mediums • Chart 514 • Speed: is the distance traveled in a certain amount of time • Meters/second: m/s

35. Intensity: depends on the amplitude (volume) and the distance from the source • Decibels: (dB) is the unit for sound intensity • Chart on 515 • Damage to ears around 120 dB

36. Frequency: is the number of wave cycles to pass a given point in one second • Measured in hertz (Hz) • Pitch: is the perceived frequency of sound • Different notes in music • All the different notes have a unique frequency

37. Ultrasound: use sound to locate objects or create pictures • SONAR, fish finders, radar • Animals use “echo-location” • Bats, dolphins, whales • Pregnant ladies get ultra sounds to check the baby’s health

38. Doppler Effect: pitch changes due to the object creating the sound moving closer or farther away • Pic on 516

39. Human Ear • Picture on 517 • Outer ear: the collect and funnel the sound waves into the middle ear • Middle ear: amplifies the the vibrations • Inner ear: are where nerve endings receive and send the signal to the brain • The brain interprets those signals as sound

40. Resonance: waves of the same frequency combine (constructive interference) • amplifies the sound • Resonance can also cause to vibrate • Every object has a natural frequency, if a sound wave with the same frequency hits it, it will cause the object to vibrate

41. Seismic waves • Seismic waves are the waves of energy caused by the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion. They are the energy that travels through the earth and is recorded on seismographs.

42. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake4.htmhttp://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake4.htm

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