MINIMUM DATA SETS (MDS) DEBRA VERNA, RN, LNHA
Nine Federal MDS Tags • F272- Resident Assessment using the RAI • F273-Admission Assessment • F274 SCSA (Significant Change in Status Assessment) • F275 Annual Assessment • F276-Quarterly Assessment • F278-Accuracy of Assessment • F279-Comprehensive Care Plans • F286-Maintain 15 months of MDS data • F287-Encoding & transmitting of MDS
F286 (MDS Use)Effective March 1, 2009 • Storage of paper copy of MDS for facilities using allelectronic records is no longer required. • Maintaining the 15 months of MDS data is still required. • MDS records must still be accessible to clinical staff, the State and CMS.
Deficiencies related to MDS have made • the top 10 list for last 3 years.
2006 F272 - Resident Assessment using the RAI cited 44.40 % of TN facilities F279-Comprehensive Care Plans cited 34.10 % of TN facilities F278-Accuracy of Assessment cited 22.20 % of TN facilities
2007 F279-Comprehensive Care Plans cited 40.50 % of TN facilities F278-Accuracy of Assessment cited 35.30 % of TN facilities F272 - Resident Assessment using the RAI cited 28.40 % of TN facilities
2008 F278-Accuracy of Assessment cited 40.20 % of TN facilities F272 - Resident Assessment using the RAI cited 37.90 % of TN facilities F279-Comprehensive Care Plans cited 29.50 % of TN facilities
*2009 F272- Resident Assessment using the RAI cited approx. ½ of nursing homes being surveyed as of this date 44.40% F279-Comprehensive Care Plans cited 32.400 % of TN facilities F278-Accuracy of Assessment cited 20.60 % of TN facilities
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2006 2007 2008 2009 F272 44.40% 28.40 % 37.90 % 44.40% F278 22.20 % 35.30 % 40.20 % 20.60 % F279 34.10 % 40.50 % 29.50 % 32.40 % __________________________________________________________________
The information in the clinical record must support not conflict with the MDS and the information must be substantiated.
The Administrator, Director of Nursing, Regional Administrator, Regional Nurse Consultant and the MDS Coordinator were informed of the IMMEDIATE JEOPARDY
MDS Accuracy has an effect on: • Resident’s Care Plan • Payment • Quality Indicators/Quality Measures
Excerpts from actual IJ level deficiencies Cited at F272, F278, and F279
F272 J Based on medical record review, facility policy review, facility documentation review, and interview, the facility failed to assess unsafe behaviors for one resident (#5) who was ventilator/trach dependent of five residents reviewed on the facility's respiratory unit, placing Resident #5 in immediate jeopardy.
F278 JBased on observation, record review, and interview, it was determined the facility failed to ensure Residents were accurately assessed. The failure of the facility to accurately assess pressure wounds and acute changes in condition resulted in IMMEDIATE JEOPARDY for 2 of the 14 Residents on the sample
F279 KExample #1 • Based on observation, interview and record review it was determined that the facility failed to develop a comprehensive care plan for 10 (#5, #15, #19, #22, #24, #29, #38, #41, #45 & #50) of 51 Residents sampled, placing Residents #22, #24, #29, & #38 in Immediate Jeopardy .
F279 J Example #2 • Based on medical record review and interviews, it was determined the facility failed to develop a comprehensive care plan for behaviors for 2 Residents (#17 and #5) of 21 sampled Residents. The failure of the facility to care plan wandering behavior and to implement interventions resulted in IMMEDIATE JEOPARDY for Resident #17. The Chief Financial Officer, the Administrator, the Director of Nursing (DON), and the Minimum Data Set Coordinator were informed of the IMMEDIATE JEOPARDY.
Behaviors Relative to MDS
MDS Section E:Mood & Behavior Patterns • Who gathers the data? • Assessors don’t diagnosis, only record what they have seen.
E1. Indicators of Depression, Anxiety, Sad Moods • Verbal expressions of distress • Sleep cycle issues • Sad, apathetic, anxious appearance • Loss of interest
E2. Mood Persistance • Be sure to include night shift when talking to staff • For all behavior issues, check that the documentation is in place, like behavior flow sheets, care plan, nurses’ notes • It is essential the documentation is reflective of what is being communicated
E3. Change in Mood • Compare today’s mood with mood of last assessment • No change • Improved • Deteriorated
E4 Behavioral Symptoms • Harmful to self, residents or staff • Behaviors may occur at different times of day • Need input from all shifts & disciplines • Program to minimize, alternate or eliminate disruptive behaviors. • Care plan needs to be in place. • Observe the behavior, not the intent (doesn’t mean to hurt someone, just afraid.)
E4 (a). Behavioral SymptomsFrequency • Need documentation. If not in place, put in place. • Is there a restraint in use? Resident in geri-chair to keep from exhibiting behavior • Was behavior easily altered? • Was resident easily distracted/redirected? • Persistent behavior?
E4 (b) Behavioral Symptoms Alterability Include: • Numbers • Frequency • Intensity &/or • Alterability Review documentation, observation, talk to staff. Look at last quarterly.
MDS Section F: Psychosocial Well- being • Who fills this section out? • SW and nursing need to work together and agree on same assessment.
F1. Sense of Initiative/Involvement • Observation, interview • Observations of cognitively impaired • Discrepancies may exist between how resident sees self and staff observations. • Code what you observe not what resident thinks.
F2 Unsettled Relationships • How does the resident interact with others? • Observe and interview • Observe the resident. • Talk to staff and family. • You are looking for an overall picture, a consensus view.
F3. Past Roles • Observe and interview • Document resident’s recognition or acceptance of feeling regarding previous roles or status now that they are in a nursing home.
Behavior Management Programs • Does your facility have a Behavioral Management Program? • Does your staff know what the program consists of and which residents are on the program? • Is the Behavioral Management Program incorporated in the resident Care Plan? • Who monitors and evaluates the program? • Does your program work? • How do you determine that it is working?
Antipsychotic Medication Quarterly Evaluation/AIMS Psychoactive Medication Monthly Flow Record Behavior Intervention Monthly Flow Record Anti-Anxiety Side Effect Sheet Anti-Depressant Side Sheet Anti-Psychotic Side Effect Psychoactive Medication Use Reference Card Non-Pharmacologic Intervention Record for Targeted Behavioral Symptoms Antipsychotic Medication Quality Assurance Sheet Unnecessary Medication/Quality Assurance Evaluation Sheet Mood-BehaviorForms/Tools
Caution: • Some facilities use tools to assist in data collection and reflection of care provided. • Blank, incomplete or inaccurate information reflected on tools could also reflect/indicate non-compliance. • Incorporate additional tools only if they are clearly beneficial in facilitating documentation and clinical decision-making. *Use tools discerningly.
The Resident Assessment InstrumentRAI • ASSISTS STAFF TO LOOK AT RESIDENTS HOLISTICALLY • STRENGTHENS TEAM COMMUNICATION • PROVIDES STRUCTURE in LTC FOR A PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION PROCESS
The Resident Assessment InstrumentRAI • Surveyors use RAI/MDS assessments to assist in determination of accurate and comprehensive assessments of the condition of the resident.
The MDS does not relinquish the facility’s responsibility to document a more detailed assessment of resident.
MDS Coordinators must: • Observe resident • Talk with resident, caregivers, housekeepers, dietary staff, family • Observational and Communication skills are essential
Assists Staff to Look at Residents Holistically • Residents are individuals for whom quality of life and quality of care are equally significant and necessary. • It is important for staff to gather definitive information on a resident’s strengths and needs. • Staff must be able to track changes in the resident’s status.
Strengthens Team Communication • The process of problem identification is integrated with sound clinical interventions by an interdisciplinary team. • The RAI process assists staff to evaluate goal achievement. • With strengthened communication, all necessary resources and disciplines will be used to ensure that residents achieve the highest level of functioning possible, and maintain their sense of individuality.
PROVIDES STRUCTURE in LTC FOR A PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION PROCESS • Assessment- Evaluate all observations, information and knowledge about a resident; finding out who the resident is. • Decision-making- Determining the severity, functional impact, and scope of the resident’s problems; finding out the “what’s” and “why’s” of the resident’s problems.
PROVIDES STRUCTURE in LTC FOR A PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION PROCESS (cont.) • Care Planning-Developing a course of action that will move a resident toward a specific goal, utilizing the resident’s strengths and the interdisciplinary team expertise; building the “how” of resident care. • Implementation-Putting the care plan interventions into motion by staff knowledgeable about the resident’s goals and approaches; carrying out the “how” and “when” of resident care.
PROVIDES STRUCTURE in LTC FOR A PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION PROCESS (cont.) • Evaluation-Critically reviewing care plan goals, interventions, and implementation in terms of achieved resident outcomes, and assessing the need to modify the care plan to adjust to changes in the resident’s status.
Resident Assessment Protocols (RAP) Process • The RAP Guidelines are an aide, a tool, a starting point. • Information in the RAP is used to supplement clinical judgment and stimulate creative thinking when trying to understand or resolve difficult or confusing symptoms and their causes.
Resident Assessment Protocols (RAP) Process • Participation in this process by all members of the interdisciplinary team will assist in assuring that a meaningful assessment of the resident is completed. • This will then lead to an appropriate, individualized plan of care.
Resident Assessment Protocols (RAP) Process • Each facility should establish a documentation process that “works” for them. • Some facilities have developed tools to assist in data collection and reflection of care provided. • These tools can be used as a part of MDS validation review. • Caution: • Incorporate additional tools only if they are clearly beneficial in facilitating documentation and clinical decision-making.
Resident Assessment Protocols (RAP) Process • RAP “documentation” involves only what should already be taking place: • Clear assessments • Decision-making by staff knowledgeable about the resident’s condition • Care plans developed based on a comprehensive assessment of the resident’s needs, strengths, and preferences
Care Planning Process • Specific, individualized approaches must then be developed. • These are actually instructions for resident care and will provide continuity of care by all staff. • These instructions should be short and concise so they can be easily understood by all staff.
Care Planning Process • The effectiveness of the care plan must be continually evaluated, and modified as necessary. • The care plan is designed to be an effective tool for providing appropriate, individualized care.
Care Planning Process • If used correctly, the entire care planning process will save time and effort while improving resident outcomes. • It should not involve duplication of effort.
Care Planning Process • The resident, family, or resident representative should be part of the team discussion and care planning process whenever they choose.
Care Planning Process • Communication is the key to effective care planning. • The care plan should present a true picture of the resident’s status.