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Meet New France

Meet New France

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Meet New France

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  1. Meet New France Social Studies 7 Pages 88-103

  2. What was the Social Structure of New France? • People were classified according to levels of importance within the colony. • The most important people were born into the ruling class (nobility) • Wealthy people were next (merchants were rich) • Everyone else made up the bottom levels of society. • The Catholic Church organized French Society. • The Church provided moral direction, hospitals, orphanages and schools.

  3. Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac1622-1698 • A French nobleman who went into debt because he loved the rich life • King Louis XIV appointed him Governor of New France which got him out of debt • His grand ideas for New France caused problems with the Sovereign Council • King was displeased with conflict, called him back to France.

  4. Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac1622-1698 • King took away position, Frontenac lived in poverty for a while. • After releasing him from his position, New France became severely threatened from the Haudenosaunee and the British. • The King sent Frontenac back to New France as a commander of the army because he was experienced.

  5. Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac1622-1698 • Frontenac attacked the Haudenosaunee • His attack contributed to the formation of the Great Law of Peace made with the French • Successfully defended New France

  6. Marie-Claude Chamois 1656-1705 • She was a “Fille du roi” (daughter of the King; orphan) sent to New France to marry soldiers • Married Francois Frigon and had 7 kids • Known as “habitants”- cleared, cultivated, domesticated the land they were given. • Learned how to survive from Innu and Kichesiprini (food, clothing and shelter) • First nations traded back with Habitants

  7. Pierre-Esprit Radisson 1636-1710 • He was a “Coureur de Bois” (runner of the woods) seeking trade with First Nations • Stuck to no “side”. He would side with whomever would offer him the best return for his skills (French or British) • Kidnapped as a young teen by Haudenosaunee, details are few. Not sure how he was released? Escaped? Ransomed?

  8. Pierre-Esprit Radisson 1636-1710 • Explored west with his Brother In Law, where they returned with many Beaver Pelts • Expecting to become wealthy, they were instead arrested and fined for trading without permission • In a defiant retaliation, Radisson told the British what had happened so the British sent him to claim the land around the Hudsons Bay for Britian. Which they did. • They built forts in direct competition with New France called the Hundon’s Bay Company.

  9. Pierre-Esprit Radisson 1636-1710 • After 5 years, Radisson returned to New France to make a complaint about his fine for trading in the west 5 years prior. • Governor Frontenac refused to hear it. • While in New France, Raddison and his brother in law met Charles Auber de la Chesnayewho started a fur trading company called Comagnie du Nord (Company of the North)

  10. Pierre-Esprit Radisson 1636-1710 • This company competed with the Hudson’s Bay Company. • Radisson and Medard planned the surprise attack and captured a cargo of beaver pelts. • Frontenac was not impressed, even though Radisson and Medard were now on their side. He ordered them to pay a hefty tax on their captured furs. • Radisson angry, again returned to work for Britian and never returned to New France.

  11. Agathe de Saint-Pere 1657-1748 • A woman of New France who, from a young age, raised her brothers and sisters, married a French Military Officer and raised 8 children of her own. • A shortage of linen and wool inspired Agathe to create material from locally grown plants (nettles, bark fibre, cottonweed, etc) • She had 9 captured weavers work for her to make and sell material.

  12. Jean-Alexis Lemoine 1680-1754 • Voyageur and Fur Trader • Travelled the St. Lawrence River trading with many forts along the way. They would trade for furs the First Nations had traded over the winter. • He made little money doing this so he opened a small shop in Montreal that sold supplies to voyageurs and local french troops.

  13. Jean-Alexis Lemoine 1680-1754 • He traded for money and furs in his shop. He would sell the furs to bigger merchants who shipped them to France.

  14. Francois-Etienne Cugnet 1688 - 1751 • Involved in several businesses in New France (glue, tobacco, ironworks) • Opened his own Ironworks business in 1730 and was granted license by France to supply the royal shipyards. • His business struggled to make a profit so he needed loans from the government. • He eventually claimed bankruptcy and the government took over the company until 1883 (more than 150 years)

  15. Marguerite d’Youville 1701-1771 • Married a nobleman in New France, 6 of her 8 children died in infancy. Her husband also died. • She pledged her life to helping the poor and sick. • The government of New France asked her to take over Hopital General in Montreal. • She employed the poor and sick to sew clothing, make sails, tents, candles, cure tobacco and make bread. • She and her fellow workers became known as the Sisters of Charity, also known as The Grey Nuns. (who now have hospitals all over Canada)

  16. The Sovereign Council • King made the Council to rule New France. It included: • Governor • Represented the King • Controlled military and defense of colony • External relations (trade with First Nations) • Intendant • Chief administrator of the colony • Kept colony in good order, less dependent on France • Exploited the colony for the benefit of France • Bishop of Quebec • Represented the Catholic Church • Spiritual and moral guidance, started schools, hospitals, orphanages • Was always called upon when important decisions in the colony were to be made.

  17. Soldiers • Under Frontenac, many soldiers came to defend the colony against the Haudenosaunee and the British • King wanted soldiers to stay and settle in New France so he offered them seigneuries. • A seigneury a piece of land along the St. Lawrence River offered to the soldiers to live and build a life upon. They could also own the land and charge “rent’ to others to live on it.

  18. Habitants • Farmers who lived on seigneuries. • Habitants means “inhabitants” (people who inhabit the land) • If they were in France, they would have been known as paysans (peasants)- people who rarely own anything. • Clearing the land, planting crops, building houses and paying a seigneurs miller to grind their grain were done in exchange for the right to establish and live on the farmland. • Habitants who rebelled became “Coueurs de Bois” and formed alliances with groups that used and appreciated their skills and knowledge.

  19. Seigneurs • Owned large plots of land called “seigneuries” • Usually from noble families but futher along in history, common people could become Seigneurs. • They were like landlords and allowed Habitants to live on land as long as they took care of the land. • To keep their land, they had to recruit settlers, build a house for themselves, a flour mill and a church for the Habitants.

  20. Merchants • Shops including blacksmiths, shoemakers, masons, bakers and butchers. • Made their living on the fur trade. They imported goods from France and traded with the First Nations. • They also took in furs, then sold them back to France where they hoped to make a profit.

  21. Catholic Church • Played a very important role in the identity of New France. • In Europe, there was a very big rivalry between Catholics and Protestants. People were often discriminated against because of their religion. • The Jesuits (Catholic Religious Order) came to New France in the early 1600’s. • They worked with the First Nations and converted them to Catholicism.

  22. Catholic Church • Established schools, hospitals and orphanages in New France. • The Clergy were a small group of educated people who could read and write. They were consulted by the government before making important decisions.