What is hula dancing? • A form of dance developed in the Hawaiian islands, accompanied by song or chant • The movements of the body and hands translate or reflect the meaning of the song • There are two main categories of hula dancing: Kahiko and Auana
History of Hula • Some legends say that Laka, goddess of the hula, gave birth to the dance on the island of Moloka‘i. • In the early 1800s, American Protestant missionaries banned the hula as a heathen dance.
History of Hula, cont. • In the late 1800s, King David Kalakaua bought back the traditional arts of Hawaii. • Today, Hawaii holds annual hula competitions and festivals to preserve and celebrate Hawaiian culture and dance. The most distinguished is the Merrie Monarch festival, held in memory of King Kalakaua.
Hula Kahiko Music Clips, Images • Kahiko Wahine (Women) Chant • Kahiko Kane (Men) Chant
Hula Kahiko • Kahiko is an ancient hula • It is often accompanied by mele (chanting) and the pahu (traditional drum) • Hawaiians used Kahiko dance to pass down stories and history accurately since there was no written language • Stories spoke of powerful figures or events, mythology and creation.
Kahiko Instruments Pahu • Shark-skin covered wooden drum, often made from coconut log or breadfruit wood • Instrument is either played with the fingertips of the palms of the hand • Drums gives off a deep tone • Often used to accommodate Kahiko hula
Ipu • This hollowed-up single or double gourd drum helps in keeping a steady beat to the hula. • It is used by slapping the drum with the hands (pa’i) and fingers and stamping on the ground or on a mat (ku).
Auana Hula • Modern hula, influenced by Western culture • Slack key guitar and ukulele are used rather than the Pahu • Music followed a more melodic harmony • In comparison to Kahiko’s more brisk and fast-paced movements, Auana is slower and more graceful • Auana is mainly used for entertainment • Movements are also used to tell a story
Hula Auana Sound Clips Hula Auana Hula Auana: Ka Uluwehi O Ke Kai (Plants of the Sea)
Ukulele Ukulele sound clip • Adapted from early European influences • Comes from the guitar family with four strings • Mainly made from local Hawaiian wood, Koa • There are 4 different types of ukulele: soprano, concert, tenor and baritone
Popular Hula Implements ‘Uli ‘uli: feathered gourd rattles. Shaken at the wrist in a brisk back & forth motion Pu’ili: split bamboo sticks. Sticks are hit together or against the body (shoulders) to create sound & rhythm.
Review • What is the difference between hula Kahiko and hula Auana? • In sound? • In dancing style? • What is purpose for hula in Hawaiian culture? • Name the instruments and implements used in hula Auana and Kahiko.