By Sean Finney Section 2- Formal Amendment
Vocab • Amendment • Ratification • Formal amendment • Bill of Rights
Formal Amendment Process • The Constitution wasn’t perfect from he beginning. This is why we have amendments, or changes. • Article V describes 4 ways an amendment can be ratified, or approved. • A formal amendment is an official amendment that can be found in the Constitution itself.
Formal Amendment Process- 2 • An amendment can be proposed by 2/3rds of Congress and then ratified by 3/4ths of the states. Today, 38 states must ratify the amendment to add it to the Constitution. 26 amendments were added this way. • Amendments can also be added in state conventions. Only the 21st amendment was added this way.
Formal Amendment Process- 3 • There is a third method where a national convention could be held to ratify an amendment, however this has never been done. • There could also be a national convention followed by state conventions. This is how the original Constitution was ratified.
The Amendments • Amendments 1-10: Bill of Rights • Amendment 11- States immune from certain lawsuits • Amendment 12- Changes in electoral college procedures • Amendment 13- Abolition of slavery • Amendment 14- Citizenship, equal protection, and due process
The Amendments 2 • Amendment 15- No denial of vote because of race, color, or previous enslavement • Amendment 16- Congress given the power to tax incomes • Amendment 17- Popular election of U.S. Senators • Amendment 18- Prohibition of alcohol
The Amendments 3 • Amendment 19- Women’s suffrage • Amendment 20- Change of dates for presidential and congressional terms • Amendment 21- Repeal of Prohibition (18th Amendment) • Amendment 22- Limit on presidential terms
The Amendments 4 • Amendment 23- District of Columbia allowed to vote in presidential elections. • Amendment 24- Ban of tax payment as voter qualification • Amendment 25- Presidential succession, vice presidential vacancy, and presidential disability • Amendment 26- Voting age changed to 18
The Amendments 5 • Amendment 27- Congressional pay • These are the only changes made to the Constitution so far.
Federalism and Popular Sovereignty • Since the people have the power, the citizens of the US have the right to suggest and propose amendments. Citizens need to vote for an amendment to be made before the Supreme Court ratifies it.
Proposed Amendments • No amendments can be made to limit citizens’ rights. • If a state denies an amendment, they can change their minds later. The reverse, however, isn’t true. • 15,000 amendments have been proposed. Only 33 have been sent to Congress, and only 27 have been ratified.
Unratified Amendments • 1789: Dealing with seating in the House of Representatives. • 1810: No citizenship for certain immigrants. • 1861: No more slavery-related amendments • 1924: Give Congress power over child labor. • 1972: Give women more rights; almost ratified, but 3 states short. • 1978: Give Washington DC seats in Congress