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Ch 5 PPT

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Ch 5 PPT

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  1. Ch 5 PPT Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution

  2. Population Growth • Huge population growth caused a shift in the balance of power between the colonies and England (mother country) • Population: 1700 = 300,000, but by 1775 = 2.5 million • Average age in 1775 = 16 • 1700: England outnumbered the colonies 20:1, by 1775 only by 3:1. • Only 4 major cities: Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Charleston

  3. Philadelphia (largest in the 1750’s)

  4. Boston

  5. Urban Population Growth1650 - 1775

  6. Ethnic Groups

  7. Other Races • Write down 2 other races (Pg. 85) and where they settled. • New societies created out of diverse ethnic groups: English, Africans, Scots-Irish, Germans, French. • Scots-Irish didn’t like British government. • 12 future Presidents were Scots-Irish (Andrew Jackson). • Out of 56 signers of Declaration of Independence - 18 = non-English and 8 weren’t born in the colonies. • Which non-English group was the largest?

  8. Ethnic & Racial Composition of American People: 1790 • British 49% • African 19% • German 7% • Scottish 7% • Scots Irish 5% • Dutch 3% • Irish 3% • French .4% • Swedes, Jews, Swiss .3%

  9. Scots-Irish • Not really Irish, but Scottish Lowlanders • Were Presbyterians (hated by Catholics) • Early 1700’s – tens of thousands came to America. • Most went to Pennsylvania - settled in frontier areas. • Also spread to the back country of Maryland and parts of Virginia and Carolinas

  10. Government Attempts to Control Trade • Pg 92: What 2 products the colonies produced and where? • Navigation Acts in 1651: passed to guarantee England alone would profit from trade with colonies • English government tried to inhibit the colonial trade to French West Indies by passing the Molasses Act of 1733 • Colonists ignored it and smuggled (triangular trade)

  11. Molasses Act 1733 • British law imposed tax on molasses, sugar, and rum imported from non-British foreign colonies (French West Indies) into North American colonies. • Aimed at creating a monopoly of the American sugar market • Smuggling • Sugar Act passed in 1764

  12. Colonial Trade (Pg 93) • Triangular Trade: Rum traded to Gold Coast of Africa in exchange for African slaves. Slaves traded to the West Indies for Molasses. Molasses taken back to New England and made into rum. (rum taken to Coast of Africa, etc.) • Other items traded: food, forest products (timber/lumber), tobacco, indigo, furs, meat, and grains.

  13. Mercantilism • AKA: English Trade System • Goal - Mother country wants to: • Be self-sufficient • Expand trade to increase gold reserves to become rich • To limit foreign imports and to encourage a favorable balance of trade • A policy in which colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country, exchanging raw materials for manufactured goods

  14. Mercantilism – How did it work? • Export raw materials from America • Make finished product in England • Make colonists buy products only from England • Export more products from England than England imports • Enumerated goods: Goods that England needed, but didn’t have the natural resources to produce • Had to get enumerated goods from colonies: Sugar, Tobacco, cotton, indigo, rice.

  15. Too Many Products • Colonies produced too many products for England so they started selling to other countries • English government “turned a blind eye” to colonies trading outside of England. • Salutary neglect = Did not enforce Navigation Acts

  16. But after French & Indian War • French and Indian War is also known as: . • Changed economic policy…. • From Salutary Neglect to strict enforcement of Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1663 • All products must be sold through England, no direct sales to other countries

  17. Getting Around • 1700’s: roads built to connect major cities • Roads poor (dirt roads) - transportation was slow • First “Holiday Inns” were calledtaverns: sprang up along the main travel routes. • Taverns = places where information was exchanged, rumors were spread, public opinions were discussed, agitation for revolution was stirred, and all classes were accepted. • Also for amusement – pool tables, bowling, gambling

  18. Pg 95: What sect of protestants had the greatest # of followers in 1775 and where were they located? • Which colonies were mostly Anglican? • Which colonies had no tax supported churches in 1775?

  19. Denominationsin 1775 • Congregational Church – Congregationalists (Puritans) • Anglicans - Church of England • Presbyterians (Scots Irish) • German churches (Lutherans) • Dutch Reformed • Quakers (Society of Friends)

  20. First Great Awakening: 1730s & 1740s • Religiousrevivalsin theEnglish colonies spreadingevangelistic fervor. Challenged the control of traditional clerics over their congregations. • Pastor Jonathan Edwards: salvation isn’t given by doing good, but by the grace of God. Famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.” • Parson George Whitefield: Gifted preacher - roused the emotions of the audience. • “Old Light”preachers: opposed the emotionalism of the revivalists • “New Light” preachers: New type of ministers upset the Orthodox clergy. Had intensely emotional sermons in order to revitalize American religion.

  21. First Great Awakening Cont. • Challenged patterns of traditional religion • Individual can choose their religion • 1st genuine united movement in the colonies • Helped nurture seeds of independence as people felt united by a common history and shared experiences.

  22. Results of Great Awakening • Undermined prestige of the learned clergy in the colonies • Congregationalists and Presbyterians split: many believers became Baptists and to other sects who were more accepting of emotion in religion. • Led to founding of Princeton, Brown, Dartmouth, and Rutgers colleges – “new light” centers. • Encouraged a wave of missionary work among Native Americans and Black slaves.

  23. Schools and Colleges • Education: mainly for boys - most zealously promoted in New England colonies • New England - Education for religious reasons: Reading the Bible, doctrine, and preparing men for ministry • Classical languages: Latin and Greek • Middle Colonies had some tax-supported schools

  24. Today’s Ivy League Schools • 1636 Harvard: Cambridge, Mass. Congregational • 1693 College of William and Mary: VA – Anglican • 1701 Yale: Connecticut - Congregational • 1746 Princeton: NJ – Presbyterian • 1751 University of Pennsylvania: PA – nonsectarian • 1754 Columbia: NY – Anglican • 1764 Brown: RI – Baptist • 1766 Rutgers: NJ – Dutch Reformed • 1769 Dartmouth: NH – Congregational

  25. Deism • Lord Edward Herbert: founder of Deism • God set universe in motion and left it to natural law without intervening again • Deists believed in God, but rejected organized religion • Most famous Deist was Benjamin Franklin • Morality could be achieved by following reason rather than the teachings of the church

  26. Ben Franklin: “First Civilized American”1754 Political Cartoon

  27. Franklin’s Political Cartoon Impacted History • Urged colonies to join together to support the Albany Plan of Union during French and Indian War • Cartoon showed disunity of the colonies • 1754: published in Pennsylvania Gazette • Later used as a symbol of colonial freedom during the Revolution

  28. Ben Franklin – “First Civilized American”

  29. Ben Franklin–“First Civilized American” • Apprenticed as a printer • Lived in Philadelphia (London-2 years) • Started University of Pennsylvania: first American college not controlled by a denomination • Established first privately supported lending library in Philadelphia • Improved the post office - became first Postmaster General • Organized 1st fire department • Reformed the police department

  30. Ben Franklin – Inventor/Scientist • Invented bifocals • Created the Franklin Stove • Built the first electric battery • Invented the Glass Harmonica • Discovered electricity • Lightning rod

  31. Founding Father and “First Civilized American” • Signed the Declaration of Independence, 1783 Treaty of Paris, U.S. Constitution • Published PennsylvaniaGazette • Wrote “The Autobiography of Ben Franklin” and “Poor Richard’s Almanac”: has many pithy sayings - “Honesty is the best policy”

  32. Pioneer Presses • John Peter Zenger – newspaper printer • Jail for 9 months for printing article that was critical of Royal Governor of New York. • Charged with seditious libel. • Zenger argued he had printed the truth. Jury found him innocent. • Important case for freedom of press and helped established the doctrine that true statements about public officials couldn’t be prosecuted as libel. • Encouraged editorsto be morecriticalof public officials.

  33. Politics of 1775 • 8 colonies: had royal governors appointed by king. Two-house legislator: Upper house appointed by the crown in the royal colonies • 3 colonies: proprietary – proprietors chose the governors (MD, PA, DE) Two-house legislature: voted for in the proprietary colonies • 2 charter colonies - elected their own governors (CT, RI) • Lower house: elected by property owners. • Had religious or property qualifications in order to vote • Taxes: voted on for the necessary expenses of colonial governments. • 1775: Colonies not yet a true democracy

  34. The Structure of Colonial Society • Gentry Class • South = Plantation Owners: wealthy, educated • North = Lawyers (had a lot of power), Officials, Clergymen (most honored profession), Merchants • Middle Class • Yeomen Farmers: small, family owned farms • Physicians (least honored and not highly trained) • Tradesmen/Artisan: blacksmith, tinsmith, printer • Merchants: shop owner • Poor Class • Indentured servants, free laborers, lesser tradesmen, poor farmers • Slaves

  35. Gentry Class Middle Class Poor Class Slaves Social Structure

  36. Charles Town (Charleston) -- Largest City in the South