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Ch 5 PPT

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Ch 5 PPT

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  1. Ch 5 PPT Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution

  2. Population Growth • Huge population growth caused shift in balance of power between colonies and England (mother country) • Population: 1700 = 300,000, but by 1775 = 2.5 million • 1775 Average age = 16 • Only 4 major cities: Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Charleston

  3. Philadelphia (largest in the 1750’s)

  4. Urban Population Growth1650 - 1775

  5. Ethnic Groups

  6. Other Races • New societies created out of diverse ethnic groups: English, Africans, Scots-Irish, Germans, French. • Scots-Irish didn’t like British government. • Out of 56 signers of Declaration of Independence - 18 = non-English and 8 weren’t born in the colonies. • Which non-English group was the largest?

  7. Ethnic & Racial Composition of American People: 1790 • British 49% • African 19% • German 7% • Scottish 7% • Scots Irish 5% • Dutch 3% • Irish 3% • French .4% • Swedes, Jews, Swiss .3%

  8. Scots-Irish • Not really Irish, but Scottish Lowlanders • Were Presbyterians (hated by Catholics) • Early 1700’s – tens of thousands came to America. • Most went to Pennsylvania - settled in frontier areas. • Also spread to back country of Maryland and parts of Virginia and Carolinas

  9. Government Attempts to Control Trade • Map Pg 92: What are 2 products the colonies produced and at what location? • 1651 Navigation Acts:passed to guarantee England alone would profit from trade with colonies • English government tried to inhibitcolonial trade to French West Indies by passing 1733 Molasses Act • Colonists ignored it/smuggled (triangular trade)

  10. Molasses Act 1733 • British law imposed tax on molasses, sugar, rum imported from non-British foreign colonies (French W. Indies) into N. American colonies. • Aimed at creating a monopoly of American sugar market • Smuggling occurred

  11. Colonial Trade (Pg 93) • Triangular Trade: Rum traded to Gold Coast of Africa in exchange for African slaves. Slaves traded to West Indies for Molasses. Molasses taken back to New England and made into rum. (rum taken to Coast of Africa, etc.) • Other items traded: food, forest products (timber/lumber), tobacco, indigo, furs, meat, grains.

  12. Mercantilism • AKA: English Trade System • Goal - Mother country wants to: • Be self-sufficient • Expand trade to increase gold reserves to become rich • To limit foreign imports and to encourage a favorable balance of trade • Policy in which colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country, exchanging raw materials for manufactured goods

  13. Mercantilism – How did it work? • Export raw materials from America • Make finished product in England • Make colonists buy products only from England • Export more products from England than England imports • Enumerated goods: Goods that England needed, but didn’t have the natural resources to produce: Sugar, Tobacco, cotton, indigo, rice.

  14. Too Many Products • Colonies produced too many products for England so they started selling to other countries • English govt “turned a blind eye” to colonies trading outside of England = Salutary neglect: Didn’t enforce Navigation Acts

  15. But after French & Indian War • French and Indian War is also known as: . • Changed economic policy…. • From Salutary Neglect to strict enforcement of Navigation Acts1660 and 1663 • All products must besold through England, no direct sales to other countries

  16. Getting Around • 1700’s: roads built to connect major cities • Roads poor (dirt roads) - transportation slow • First “Holiday Inns” were calledtaverns: sprang up along the main travel routes. • Taverns = information exchanged, rumors spread, public opinions discussed, agitation for revolution stirred, all classes were accepted. • For amusement – pool tables, bowling, gambling

  17. TMWK CH 5 • 1. chart Pg 95: What sect of protestants had the greatest # of followers in 1775 and where were they located? • 2. Which colonies were mostly Anglican? • 3. Which colonies had no tax supported churches in 1775?

  18. 1775 Denominations • Congregational Church – Puritans, Congregationalists • Anglicans - Church of England • Presbyterians- Scots Irish • German churches- Lutherans • Dutch Reformed • Quakers - Society of Friends

  19. First Great Awakening: 1730s & 1740s • Religiousrevivalsin theEnglish colonies spreadingevangelistic fervor. Challenged the control of traditional clerics over their congregations. • Pastor Jonathan Edwards: salvation isn’t given by doing good, but by the grace of God. • George Whitefield: Gifted preacher – stirred emotions of the audience. • “Old Light”preachers: opposed the emotionalism of the revivalists • “New Light” preachers: New type of ministers upset the Orthodox clergy. Had intensely emotional sermons in order to revitalize American religion.

  20. First Great Awakening Cont. • Challenged patterns of traditional religion • Individual can choose their religion • 1st genuine united movement in the colonies • Helped nurture seeds of independence as people felt united by a common history and shared experiences.

  21. Results of Great Awakening • Undermined prestige of the learned clergy in the colonies • Congregationalists and Presbyterians split: many became Baptists and other sects who were more accepting of emotion in religion. • Led to founding of Princeton, Brown, Dartmouth, and Rutgers colleges – “new light” centers. • Encouraged a wave of missionary work among Native Americans and Black slaves.

  22. Schools and Colleges • Education: mainly for boys - most zealously promoted in New England colonies • New England - Education for religious reasons: Reading the Bible, learn doctrine, preparing men for ministry • Classical languages: Latin and Greek • Middle Colonies had some tax-supported schools

  23. Today’s Ivy League Schools • 1636 Harvard: Cambridge, Mass. Congregational • 1693 College of William and Mary: VA – Anglican • 1701 Yale: Connecticut - Congregational • 1746 Princeton: NJ – Presbyterian • 1751 University of Pennsylvania: PA – nonsectarian • 1754 Columbia: NY – Anglican • 1764 Brown: RI – Baptist • 1766 Rutgers: NJ – Dutch Reformed • 1769 Dartmouth: NH – Congregational

  24. Deism • Lord Edward Herbert: founder of Deism • God set universe in motion and left it to natural law without intervening again • Deists believed in God, but rejected organized religion • Most famous Deist was Benjamin Franklin • Morality could be achieved by following reason rather than teachings of the church

  25. Ben Franklin: “First Civilized American”1754 Political Cartoon

  26. Franklin’s Political Cartoon Impacted History • Urged colonies to join together to support Albany Plan of Union during French and Indian War • 1754 cartoon published in Pennsylvania Gazette showed disunity of the colonies • Later used as a symbol of colonial freedom during the Revolution

  27. Ben Franklin – “First Civilized American”

  28. Ben Franklin–“First Civilized American” • Apprenticed as a printer • Lived in Philadelphia (London-2 years) • Started Univ. of Pennsylvania: 1st American college not controlled by a denomination • Established 1st privately supported lending library in Philadelphia • Improved the post office - became 1st Postmaster General • Organized 1st fire dept • Reformed the police dept

  29. Ben Franklin – Inventor/Scientist • Invented bifocals, Franklin Stove, Glass Harmonica, Lightning rod • Discovered electricity • Built 1st electric battery

  30. Founding Father and “First Civilized American” • Signed Declaration of Independence, 1783 Treaty of Paris, U.S. Constitution • Published PennsylvaniaGazette • Wrote “The Autobiography of Ben Franklin” and “Poor Richard’s Almanac”: has many pithy sayings - “Honesty is the best policy”

  31. Pioneer Presses • John Peter Zenger – newspaper printer • Jail for 9 months for printing article that was critical of Royal Gov. of NY. • Charged with seditious libel. • Zenger argued he had printed the truth. Jury found him innocent. • Important case for freedom of press - helped establish the doctrine that true statements about public officials couldn’t be prosecuted as libel. • Encouraged editorsto be morecriticalof public officials.

  32. Politics of 1775 • 8 colonies: had royal governors appointed by king. 1) Two-house legislator: Upper house appointed by the crown in the royal colonies. 2) Lower house: elected by property owners. • 3 colonies: proprietary – proprietors chose governors (MD, PA, DE) Two-house legislature: voted for in the proprietary colonies • 2 Self governing colonies - elected their own governors (CT, RI) • Had religious or property qualificationsto vote • Taxes: voted on for necessary expenses of colonial govts. • 1775: Colonies not yet a true democracy

  33. Structure of Colonial Society • Gentry Class • South = Plantation Owners: wealthy, educated • North = Lawyers (had a lot of power), Officials, Clergymen (most honored profession), Merchants • Middle Class • Yeomen Farmers: small, family owned farms • Physicians (least honored and not highly trained) • Tradesmen/Artisan: blacksmith, tinsmith, printer • Merchants: shop owner • Poor Class • Indentured servants, free laborers, lesser tradesmen, poor farmers • Slaves: lowest class