Hydrosphere Water Water Everywhere…
Essential Standards EEn. 2.3 Explain the structure and processes within the hydrosphere. • EEn.2.3.1 Explain how water is an energy agent (currents and heat transfer). • EEn.2.3.2 Explain how ground water and surface water interact. EEn. 2.4 Evaluate how humans use water. • EEn.2.4.1 Evaluate human influences on freshwater availability. • EEn.2.4.2 Evaluate human influences on water quality in North Carolina’s river basins, wetlands and tidal environments.
Water Cycle Where does water come from? Where does it go?
What are the parts of the water cycle? • Evaporation – water changes from a liquid to a gas • Transpiration – water changes from a liquid to a gas through intake from plants • Condensation – water changes from a gas to a liquid through cooling • Precipitation – Water falls from clouds as rain, snow, sleet, hail, dew, etc… • Infiltration / percolation – water moves through the ground becoming groundwater
Are there other ways water changes phases? • Yes but these are less common • Deposition – water changes from a vapor to a solid without a liquid phase – very cold temperatures and high altitudes • Sublimination – water changes from a solid to a vapor without a liquid phase – snow seems to disappear without melting
What other factors make up the water cycle? • Flow – collection of water moving downhill • watershed – a ridge of land that funnels water into rivers or streams, separates one river basin from another • River basins - an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries • Occurs on the surface and underground
Assignment! • Draw the water cycle • You will need: • 1 large sheet of paper • Colored pencils • Label everything! • Take up the whole page
Remember River Basins? • How many river basins are in NC? What do you remember about your river water quality? • Carry freshwater to the ocean
Remember watersheds? • Define watershed: A ridge of land that separates water flowing to different rivers, basins or seas
Where is water underground? • Much is in aquifers • Bodies of permeable rock that hold or transmit groundwater • Humans tap into aquifers to use as wells
What is the water table? • Level below which the ground is saturated completely • Can vary with season • Can vary greatly with topography • Changes over time
How are groundwater and surface water connected? • Surface water percolates through the regolith to become groundwater carrying substances with it which it has contacted • Groundwater replenishes through surface water collected from precipitation • When water tables fill, flooding events happen more frequently • The water table can vary from one house to another
Ocean Currents Motion in the ocean
How does ocean water move? • Surface currents • Gyres • Density currents • Upwelling • Coreoliseffect
What are surface currents? • Develop due to friction between ocean surface and wind • Short • Affect small areas • Subject to seasonal or local influence
What are gyres? • Circular moving ocean systems • 5 main gyres: • North Pacific • South Pacific • North Atlantic • South Atlantic • Indian Ocean • Debris is pulled in with the current and continuously spirals in the ocean • Great Pacific Garbage Patch
Assignment! • Revisiting Journal Assignments • Watch the following video The Great Pacific Garbage Patch to: • Write a summary on the video (5 W’s) • Write a personal statement on what you think of the information you have just seen, how you may contribute, and what specific solutions you have to fix the problem. • Follow up questions: • Where does all the plastic come from? • How has it been damaging to ecosystems so far? • When will the plastic be out of the ecosystem? • How much more plastic is in the ocean than plankton in some places? Why is this significant?
What are density currents? • Vertical ocean currents that result from different densities • INCREASES in density can be attributed to: • Higher content of salinity • Colder temperatures • What do hot things tend to want to do? Because they are _______. Hot things tend to want to rise because they are less dense
How does temperature affect density? • As water molecules get colder, they begin to get closer together. Think about ice forming • As water molecules get warmer, they have more energy and spread apart, meaning there are less of them in an area.
How does temperature affect salinity? • As water freezes, freshwater is stored in ice but salt is left out. • Cooler water has higher concentrations of salt. • In areas such as the Mediterranean, high tempeartures combined with low precipitation leads to increased evaporation. • Salt is left behind in higher concentrations
Where do density currents take place? • At high latitudes (the poles) water sinks • Water cools • Shrinks and becomes less dense • Salinity increases • South of India and Alaska water is pushed upward • Water is heated • Expands and becomes less dense • Salinity decreases • The Mediterranean • Water is trapped and heated • Evaporation increases salinity • Water sinks thermohaline circulation
Assignment! • Group Quest • http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es2202/es2202page01.cfm?chapter_no=investigation • We will do this together in preparation for lab
Assignment! • Thermohaline circulation lab: • You will need: • water • Large bin • 250 mL beaker (at least) • Salt • 2 different food colorings • Stirring rod • Hot plate • Icewater bath
What is upwelling? • Wind blow from the equator parallel to the coast • Warm water is pushed away from the coast by wind • In a normal year this piles up warm water in the Western Pacific • What do we call it when these winds subside and warm water is not relocated? • Cold water moves up from the depths of the ocean to replace the warm water that has been blown away • Happens off the California Coast • Brings a rising of nutrients from the deep • Increases fish populations • Fish markets thrive in affected areas upwelling importance upwelling demo
How do ocean currents affect climate? • Water is carried from the equator to the poles • Pushed along by density currents • Water absorbs heat at the equator • Heat is released as water moves toward the cooler poles
Assignment! • Compare temperature trends for Fayetteville and Havelock from September through the present • Create a graph to show temperature trends between the two cities over time • Type a half a page in 12 pt font using Time New Roman on how temperatures compare in the summer vs. the winter in an inland city and a coastal city
Assignment! • Complete the chapter sheet for 16.1 on ocean currents • Turn into box when complete
Honors Assignment! • Webquest • You will compare the climate in Maine and England • Using what you know about density currents and the “global conveyor belt”, explain why you see the climate patterns you see in each location • Create a powerpoint explaining why you see these climate trends
How does the Coreolis Effect move ocean water? • Deflects currents from their original source due to Earth’s rotation. • To the right of the source in the northern hemisphere • To the left of the source in the southern hemisphere • How does this affect the climate of coastal climates compared to inland climates?
Assignment! • Ocean currents foldable • You will need • 3 different colored sheets of paper • Colored pencils • Stapler • To listen!
How else does water move on the surface? • Remember river basins? • What is a river basin? • What is a watershed? • What are our river basins used for in NC? • What types of pollution do you see in our river basins? Land are drained by a river and its tributaries Ridge of land that divides one river basin from another Drinking water, electricity, drain pollution, fishing Point source – identifiable source (mercury, factory chemicals) Non – point source – unidentifiable source (sediment, fertilizer, pesticides)
How does water move under the surface? • Infiltration and percolation – water absorbs through soil and makes its way to aquifers • Aquifers – underground water reserves • Confined – water surrounded by impermeable bedrock • Unconfined – water seeps directly into aquifer • What are aquifers used for? WELLS!
What kind of wells can be drilled from aquifers? • 3 kinds • Water table wells • In unconfined aquifer • Artisian wells • In confined aquifer • Above water table • Flowing artisian wells • In confined aquifer • Below water table
How do groundwater levels affect surface water levels? • Streams form where the water table intersects with the surface • As more water enters water table, less water can percolate • Higher water tables = more flood events
Water Use “When tempted to fight fire with fire, remember the fire department usually uses water…” - unknown
How do we use water? • Cleaning • Drinking • Recreation • Transportation • Aquaculture • Irrigation
Assignment! • Use the following link to calculate how much water you use in your home a month • http://www.saveourh2o.org/water-use-calculator • How do you compare with the household in California? • What do you think accounts for this difference? • Click to learn easy ways to lower water use • List 2 ways to conserve water in EACH area of the home • List 2 ways to conserve water in EACH area outside the home
Where does our potable water come from? • Dams • Wells – from aquifers • What 2 types of aquifers are there? • What 3 types of wells are there? Unconfined – water not surrounded by bedrock Confined – water surrounded by bedrock Water table well – drilled in an unconfined aquifer Artisian well – drilled in confined aquifer above the water table Flowing artisian well – drilled in confined aquifer below the water table
How does water use affect aquifers? • Aquifers must be recharged through percolation and infiltration from surface water • Aquifer depletion happens as aquifers are drained consistently for long periods of time • Water in aquifers can be: • Transpired by plants • Released into streams • Used by humans
What are the consequences of aquifer depletion? • Worsens drought conditions • Lowers the water table • Salt water intrusion – problem at the coast • Pressure is lowered in aquifer allowing sea water to push its way into the aquifer • Subsidence – land sinking • Coastal areas are drained allowing air in the soil sparking decomposition making land sink salt water intrusion Salt water intrusion in the news
What are some positive and negative effects of dams? • Drinking water reserve • Flood control • Nutrients are cut from flood plain • Irrigation for agriculture • Recreation • Hydroelectric power • Can cut migration patterns of fish • Atlantic salmon • American shad
What happens to old dams? • They become dangerous, outdated, or ecologically damaging • Dams are removed
What are the effects of dam removal? • Can restore migration patterns of fish • Increases spawning grounds • Expensive • Flood control no longer possible • Eliminates problems associated with dam failure and collapse • Increases rate of erosion until water levels equalize dam removal affects on community dam being removed
What is population growth doing to water resources? • Humans must have water • More humans = more pollution = less potable water • Higher demand on aquifers will increase depletion problems • What will happen to water reserves in the future if population trends continue? • What is responsible for the spike in population around 200 years ago? http://joshuaproject.net/world-clock.php
Review • How does agriculture use water? • How does recreation use water? Irrigation Aquaculture Fertilizer Pesticide Herbicides Home pools Water parks Boating Fishing Water fights
How does sharing watersheds affect people? • Many people may share the same aquifer • Pollutants that contaminate one person’s well, may travel through the aquifer to affect neighbors that have wells in the same aquifer
Assignment! • Water use lab • You will need: • Bin • Bucket • Water use chart • Sponge • To listen to the story • Write! How did your location affect how much water you had to use? What happened to the water in the well as you used/dumped it?
How do we clean water? • Waste water treatment! • Cleans water before it goes into homes and after it comes out • Has physical, chemical, and biological components of cleaning water • Waste water treatment increases quality and quantity of potable water • Removes effluent (liquid waste), sediment, trash, some chemicals, and biological components (fecal matter, parasites) of water
How is water quality assessed? • Chemical means • pH, chemical analysis (what chemicals are present) • Physical means • Color, smell, visible pollution • Biological index • Pollution tolerant vs. pollution intolerant organisms • Streams with high numbers of pollution intolerant organisms = good quality • Streams with low numbers of pollution intolerant organisms and high numbers of pollution tolerant organisms = poor quality • What if you have a high number of both?