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  2. INTRODUCTION:- Audio Visual Aids are sensitive tools used in teaching learning process. These are planned educational materials that appeal to the senses of the people. It quickens learning and facilitates for clear understanding. • A chine proverb, if I hear, I forget, If I see I remember, If I do I understand says the importance of sensory perception in teaching learning situation.

  3. COMMON A.V. Aids used for teaching of Nursing Students:- Classification as Projected & Non Projected A.V. Aids:- Projected A.V. Aids:- Overhead Projector, Osiloscope, Film Projector, Slide Projectors, Power Projectors etc. Non-Projected A.V. Aids:- Graphic Aids:- Graphs, Charts, Posters, Diagrams, Flash cards, Flip Charts, Fiannel & Khaddi graph, maps, pictures etc.

  4. Three Dimensional Aids:- Objects, Specimen, models, puppets etc. • Display Boards:- Black Boards, White Boards, Bulletin Board, Magnetic Board etc. • Print Material:- Pamphlets, Booklet, Leaflets etc. • Audio Aids:- Dramatics, Demonstrations, Field Trips, Computer Assisted Instructions etc. • Non Projected A.V. Aids:- Flip Chart, Flash Cards, Charts, Poster

  5. FLIP CHART:- These are the type of chart:- • A teacher has to prepare by incorporating his own ideas and lines of approach of the specific topic are more useful. • The flip charts are a set of charts related to specific topic. • These are tagged together and hang on a supporting stand. • The individual charts will carry a series of related messages in sequences • The salient points of specific topic will be presented.

  6. POSTER:- A poster is an informational or educational tool with which we can reach many people in many locations. It is a visual combination of an illustration of message conveyed to people. Purposes The purposes of posters are: • To provide general intervention. • To create an aesthetic or atmospheric effect. • To communicate a more general idea. • To thrust the message for leading to action • Used for teaching in the classroom and in the community

  7. Advantages of using Poster The advantages of using posters are: • It attracts attention • It conveys the message very quickly • It does not require a detailed study • Good poster leads to action with good motivation • It can stand alone and is self explanatory Disadvantages of using Posters: • The disadvantages of their use are: • Poster does not always give enough information • When a poster is seen too often, it becomes a part of the environment and then no longer attracts attention

  8. Features of a Good Poster • Brevity : Message should be concise • Simplicity : Message should be easily understandable • Idea : Should be based on single idea and it should be relevant • Layout : Few trial exercises should be undertaken to get the best layout • Colour : Suitable color and color combination should be used to made the poster attractive and eye- catching • Display : When displaying a poster one should be sure to find a place where there is adequate light and where the target population will see it.

  9. CHARTS Definition • Chart is defined as a visual symbol summarizing, comparing, contrasting or performing other helpful services in explaining the subject matter. It is meant to depict pictorial and written information in a systematic way by effective arrangement of the key facts. Purposes Its purposes are: • To visualize an item, it is otherwise difficult to explain only in words • To highlight important points • To provide outline of materials covered in presentation

  10. Advantages Its advantages are: • It is an effective tool for learning • It arouses interest • It involves a low cost • Is portable • Is easy to make • Is available for use and reuse • It is used to explain, clarify, simplify the complicated materials • It can be used to compare and show relationships. • It attracts attention, reduces the amount of verbal explanation and encourages action Disadvantages Its disadvantages are: • Charts cannot be used for large groups • It cannot be used for illiterate group

  11. Types: Some of the types that are available are: • Table chart • Wall Chart • Flow Chart • Flip Chart • Pull Chart • All the charts are made of locally available chart paper (Size 20”x30” or 30”x40”)

  12. Features of a Good Chart • Should be sufficiently large to be seen easily • Should be clear, simple and not overcrowded with facts • Should be attractive and should tell about the theme in detail • Should highlight the main points • Should be in symbols and words and have few comparisons • Should be strong enough to stand the rough use.

  13. FLASH CARDS Definition: Flash cards are a set of pictured compact paper cards of varying sizes that are flashed one by one in a logical sequence. Flash cards can be self made or commercially prepared and are made up of chart or drawing paper, plain paper using colors or ink on them for drawings.

  14. Purposes • Flash cards are commonly used to • Teach the students • Give health education • Hold or lead a discussion • Narrate a story • Teach a process

  15. Advantages • Attracts attention • Conveys messages quickly • It is dynamic and flexible, maintains continuity • Easy to prepare, portable, economic • Can be used for illiterate group Disadvantages • Cannot be used for a large group • Prone to get spoiled soon • It is time consuming during preparation

  16. How to use Flash Cards? • Be through with the picture, illustration and script • Arrange cards in sequence, flash one by one with commentary, stress important points and review by a quick flash • For displaying you can hold the cards against chest, or use folding casel, frame or box. They can also be displayed on bulletin boards or on a wall.

  17. SUMMARY/CONCLUSION We have studied about charts, poster and flash cards. Their advantages & disadvantages we learnt. The teacher has to use her judgement, skills and knowledge for using the appropriate type of A.V Aids. The main aim of using A.V. Aids for educational purpose is to enrich learning, increase understanding of concepts, acquisition of knowledge and aid in retention of factual information.

  18. BIBLIOGRAPHY • K.P.Neerja, “Text Book of Nursing Education”, 1st edition-2003, Published by Jaypee Brother’s, Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. PP 206-220 • Director, SOHS, IGNOU, Nursing Education and Research, June 2007, PP 35-41 • Basavanthapa, B.T., “Nursing Education” 1st Edition-2003, Published by, Jaypee Brother’s, Medical Publisher’s (P) Ltd. PP 335-342