Matter Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter 2012
What is Matter? • Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume). • Examples of matter:
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER • MATTER CANNOT BE CREATED OR DESTROYED IT JUST CHANGES FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER. (MATTER GETS RECYCLED)
THEORY OF KINETIC ENERGY 1. ATOMS ARE ALWAYSMOVING 2. THE MORE ENERGY ADDED TO THE ATOMS, THE FASTER & FARTHER APART THEY MOVE ENERGY ADDED ENERGY ADDED
Matter • Matter can be described by using physical and chemical properties. These are characteristics the matter has that make it unique. • Physical Properties: Are properties that can be observed or measured. (color, mass, length, volume, density, state, etc). • Physical Properties can be either: • Observable or Measurable
Observable Physical Properties • Observable Physical Properties: Properties you can use your senses to get information about an object. • If you can describe the matter based on what it looks, feels, smells or tastes like, you are describing the physical properties.
Examples of Observable Physical Properties • Malleability: the ability of a substance to be pounded into thin sheets.
Examples of Observable Physical Properties • Color: The color of object can be seen and is a physical property of matter. • Color can help identify a substance. For example, sulfur is usually yellow in color, iodine is usually red in color. Iodine Sulfur
Examples of Observable Physical Properties • Smell: The smell or odor an object gives off can also help identify a substance. • For example, sulfur has a rotten egg smell, vinegar has a very acidic smell, and chlorine has a very strong bleach smell.
Examples of Observable Physical Properties • Conduction of heat or electricity: The ability for heat and electricity to pass through an object easily. • Metals are usually the best conductors of heat and electricity.
Examples of Observable Physical Properties • Insulator of electricity or heat: when an object passes heat and electricity poorly. • Nonmetals are usually good insulators.
Examples of Observable Physical Properties • Ductility: the ability to be drawn or pulled into a wire. • Metals usually are ductile.
Examples of Observable Physical Properties • Solubility: The ability to dissolve in a nother substance. • Examples: sugar dissolves in water.
Examples of Observable Physical Properties • State of Matter: Matter can either be a solid, liquid, gas, or plasma. We observe this by using our senses.
STATES OF MATTER State of matter is a physical property!!!! • MATTER CAN BE FOUND IN 4 STATES (PHASES) • SOLID • LIQUID • GAS • PLASMA http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/states_of_matter/
PARTICLES of a SOLID (Physical Property) Pattern: ATOMS (PARTICLES) ARE ARRANGED CLOSELY PACKED TOGETHER Movement: VIBRATE Shape/Volume: HAS FIXED SHAPE & FIXED VOLUME
In Solids, the particles are very tightly packed SO: • THE OBJECT IS HARDER • THE MORE DIFFICULT IT IS TO BREAK THEM APART • THE MORE ENERGY NEEDED TO CHANGE FROM A SOLID TO A LIQUID
The particles in a LIQUID: Pattern: none Movement: atoms roll or slide over each other and move faster than a solid. Shape: No fixed shape, takes shape of container Volume: Fixed
The particles in a GAS: Pattern: none Movement: PARTICLESMOVE VERY FAST & AS FAR APART AS THEY CAN GET Shape: NO FIXED SHAPE, takes shape of container Volume: No fixed volume
The particles in PLASMA: Pattern: none Movement: Particles move very fast and are therefore very HOT Shape/Volume: NO FIXED SHAPE OR VOLUME Facts: Most common state of matter in the universe. Most Uncommon state of matter on Earth. Found in lightning, fluorescent lights and stars (Sun)
Measurable Properties of Matter • Measurabe Properties: Properties that must be measured with a tool (ruler, beaker, graduated cylinder, scale, etc.). Ruler Beaker Scale Triple Beam Balance Graduated Cylinder
Measurable Properties of Matter • Mass: is the amount of matter that something is made of. • Calculate: Using a triple beam balance or a scale. • Unit: in science ALWAYS use grams (g) or kilograms (kg).
Measurable Properties of Matter • Weight: is the amount gravity is pulling on an object. Different on the MOON!!! Other wise it is measured the same as MASS!!
Measurable Properties of Matter • Volume: the amount of space an object takes up. • Measured by: different for regular solid, irregular solid and liquids. • Examples of Regular Solids: any solid you can measure the length, width and height of. • Examples of Irregular Solids: any solid you cannot measure the length, width and height of. • Examples of Liquids: any object that has no definite shape but does have a definite volume.
Measurable Properties of Matter Measuring the Volume of Liquids: How to calculate: Use a graduate cylinder to find the volume at the meniscus. Material: graduated cylinder, beaker, flask How to read a graduated cylinder • Must be at eye level to read. • Must read to bottom of the curve.MENISCUS - bottom of the curve. • Unit: mL or L
Measurable Properties of Matter • Measuring Volume of Regular Solids: measure the length, width and height with ruler and multiply them together. • Length X Width X Height = Volume of Regular Solid • cm X cm X cm = cm3 • *ALWAYS USE CENTIMETERS IN SCIENCE!!!! • UNIT: cm3
Measurable Properties of Matter • Measuring Volume of Irregular Solids: Water displacement. Put water into a graduated cylinder and record volume. Place irregular solid into cylinder with water and record second volume. Subtract the two amounts. • Initial volume (water only) – volume with irregular solid = volume of solid • UNIT: measured in mL but, since it is a solid use cm3. 1 mL = 1 cm3
Measurable Properties of Matter • Density: the amount of matter in a given space or volume. Density is used to describe matter because everything has a different density.
Measurable Properties of Matter • Measure by: dividing and objects mass by it’s volume. • Calculate: Density = Mass/Volume m D = ------- V • Mass divided by Volume • UNIT: since mass is measured in grams and volume is measured in cm3 or mL the unit for density has to have those two units. • So, the unit for density is g/mL or g/cm3. m D V
BELLRINGER • Calculate the density for the following • objects: • Mass= 10 Volume= 5 • b.Mass= 16 Volume= 8 • c.Mass= 5 Volume= 10 • d.Mass= 12 Volume= 12 • Which object is water? Which object will • float in water? Which objects will sink in • water? 2g/ml sinker 2g/cm3 sinker 0.5g/ml floater 1g/cm3 water
DENSITY OF WATER!!!!! • The density of water is ALWAYS 1.0 g/mL. • Anything less than 1.0 g/mL will FLOAT. • Anything greater than 1.0 g/mL will sink.
These are two, unopened full cans of soda. Explain why one is floating and one has sunk.
Why are some objects less dense than other objects? As the molecules of a substance spread apart, the density of the substance is lowered. What causes molecules to spread? Adding energy so the movement of the molecules increases.
Objects float in other substances because they are less dense than the substance they are floating in. Why does ice float in water? They are both the same substance, right?
Notice how tightly packed the atoms are in the liquid water vs the solid water? The spaces between the atoms make solid water less dense. Is this true for all solids? NO WAY!!! This is a unique quality of water. Most solids are always more dense than their liquid forms.
Why does this happen? Hot air balloon rises Basketball goes flat in winter Atmosphere changes as you climb a mountain Perfume can be smelled all over the room
DENSITY When does an objects density change? If heat is added or taken away!!!! HEAT – spreads out molecules – LESS dense Take AWAY heat – molecules come together – MORE dense. Hot objects are less dense than cool objects!!!!
Chemical Properties of Matter • Chemical Properties- Properties that determine whether or not a substance will react chemically. • Flammability: the ability to burn. • Reactivity: The ability for a substance to react with another. Simply, when two substances get together, something can happen.