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CPUs and power supplies

CPUs and power supplies

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CPUs and power supplies

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  1. CPUs and power supplies Unit objective: Identify CPU characteristics and install power supplies

  2. Topic A Topic A: CPUs Topic B: Power supplies

  3. Central processing unit (CPU) • “Brains” of your PC • Processes instructions, manipulates data, controls interactions of other circuits • Contains: • A control unit • One or more execution units • Registers • Single-core vs.multi-core processors

  4. CPU performance • Instruction — Low-level, hardware-specific command • Rated in millions of instructions per seconds (MIPS) • Rated according to clock speed • Older CPUs — One clock cycle/one instruction • Newer CPUs — One clock cycle/many instructions

  5. CPU design characteristics pg 2-5 • Addressable RAM • Bus, address • Bus, data • Bus, internal • Cache • Clock speed • Data bus width • Dual Independent Bus (DIB) • Front-side bus speed continued

  6. CPU characteristics, continued • GPU • Hyperthreading • Multimedia extensions (MMX) • Multiprocessing • Overclocking • Pipelining • Superscalar • Throttling • Virtualization support

  7. Multiple-processor support • Requires symmetric multiprocessing code for OS and applications • 64-bit versions of Windows 7 and Windows Vista use NUMA • Non-uniform memory access is a computer memory design used in multiprocessing, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to a processor. • With NUMA, a processor can access its own local memory faster than non-local memory (memory local to another processor or memory shared between processors). • The benefits of NUMA are limited to particular workloads, mainly on servers

  8. Processor specifications • Most common manufacturers: • Intel • AMD • Primary specifications • Clock speed, front side bus speed, addressable RAM, Cache Size • Bus width specifications • No of bits which can be processed • Internal specifications • Voltages used by chips

  9. Inside the case • Chipsets • CPU packaging • Slots

  10. Chipsets • Memory control • System bus functions • Audio functions • Video display functions • System management functions

  11. Northbridge and Southbridge • Two most important components of a PC chipset • Northbridge controls interactions between the CPU, memory (including cache), AGP and PCIe video control circuitry, and the Southbridge continued

  12. Northbridge/Southbridge, continued • Southbridge controls interactions between buses and devices not controlled by the Northbridge • PCI expansion bus • Floppy drive controller • Serial port • Parallel port • PS/2 keyboard and mouse ports • USB and FireWire • BIOS and CMOS

  13. CPU packaging • Chip = die • A package is made up of • Die • Plastic, metal, or ceramic case • Wires or connectors • Support chips • Cooling components

  14. PGA package 80486

  15. SECC package Pentium 3

  16. Sockets and slots see pg 2-10 • 775 • 1156 • 1155 • 1366 • 940 • AM2 • AM2+ • AM3 • AM3+ • FM1 • F

  17. Pentium with MMX CPU & Socket 7 socket

  18. Typical cooling mechanisms • Fans & Heat sinks and cooling fins • Heat pipes • (water heated, evaporates which causes it to move cooler water to area which is repeated) • Water pumps • (water pumped – more effective) • Peltier coolers • (device which gets colder when voltage applied) • Phase-change cooling • (like an AC unit) • Undervolting

  19. Power supply and CPU fans Power supply fan Auxiliary fan

  20. Cooling fins

  21. Cooling fins and a fan

  22. Other cooling techniques • Heat pipes — Small tubes filled with fluid • Water pumps — Tubes filled with water, moved away from CPU to outside case and through cooling fins • Peltier coolers • Electronic device that gets colder when voltage is applied • Non-convection • Connected directly to CPU • Can be combined with water coolers continued

  23. Other cooling techniques, continued • Phase-change cooling • Vapor compression • Gas to liquid • Liquid absorbs processor heat and evaporates • Gas returned to compressor • Cycle begins again • More efficient than water cooling systems • Generate significant noise • Undervolting • Less power; less heat • Can cause system problems

  24. Topic B Topic A: CPUs Topic B: Power supplies

  25. Characteristics of electricity • Electricity — Flow of electrons • Conductor — Permits flow of electricity • Insulator — Inhibits flow of electricity • Voltage — Force of electricity caused by difference in charge at two locations • Measured in volts • Also called “potential” or “potential difference” • Officially designated as uppercase V • May see it as lowercase v continued

  26. Characteristics, continued • Current — Measure of the flow of electrons past a given point • Measured in amps, or amperes • Must be a complete circuit (closed circuit) • Direct current — Flows in one direction, at constant voltage, through circuit • Alternating current — Flows repeatedly back and forth through the circuit, at constantly varying voltage levels continued

  27. Characteristics, continued • Resistance — Force that opposes the flow of DC through a conductor • Measured in ohms (Ω) • Impedance — Like resistance, but applies to AC • Power • Measured in watts • Calculate by multiplying voltage by current • Energy — Electrical power delivered over time

  28. Electricity • Current can kill • The 1–10–100 rule • You can feel 1mA (1 milliamp) • 10mA enough to make muscles contract • 100mA enough to stop your heart

  29. Safety precautions Don’t touch exposed contacts Touch only insulated handles of tools Leave covers on equipment Work one-handed Don’t insert anything into wall outlets Remove jewelry, watches, etc. Keep hands clean and dry Don’t work in wet surroundings

  30. PC power supply • Converts AC wall voltage to DC voltages for PC components • Includes a fan • Provides some conditioning functions • Can maintain power during brief drops and outages

  31. Power supply specifications • Rated by DC power output in watts • Modern systems typically =>600 watts • Older systems <200 watts • Rating isn’t an indicator of power draw • Most power supplies will only draw the power which is needed to supply internal components • Some less efficient power supplies will however draw full power and waste electricity

  32. Typical power requirements

  33. Standard outputs

  34. Power watt calculator • http://extreme.outervision.com/PSUEngine

  35. Sizes • Form factor • AT • ATX • Micro-ATX

  36. SATA power connector • For Serial ATA drives

  37. Peripheral power connector • Molex connector • Typically used to connect hard drives and optical drives

  38. Floppy power connector • Berg connector • Smaller than Molex • Typically used to connect floppy drives

  39. Wire colors

  40. Motherboard power connectors Single power connector Dual power connectors (P8/P9)

  41. Voltage selection • Dual-supply units – can adjust the power supply to run from 110 or 220 • 110-120 • 220-240

  42. Unit summary • Identified CPU characteristics and installed power supplies