Colonizing America 1519-1733
Conquest of Mexico • The Spanish Encounter the Aztec • 1511 – led by Diego Velazquez conquered Cuba. Hernan Cortes participated- his courage noticed and was given control of several Native American Villages • Smallpox sweeps area – 6 years later Killing thousands- devastating farm and mine workers (Native Americans), leading to the expedition of the Yucatan Peninsula to find replacement workers.
The Invasion Begins • February 18, 1519 • Cortes leads with 11 ships & 550 men & horses. • Found shipwrecked Sailor • Jeronimo de Abuilar – helped with language • Spanish had large Technology advantage • Swords, crossbows, guns & cannons • Peace offering of 20 young women given to Cortes (Malinche – became adviser/translator as they moved North)
More about the Invasion • Cortes communicated with local rulers, finding out more info about the Aztec. • He believed he could convince the Tlaxcalan, and both astonished then and terrified this group into becoming allies and joining Cortes.
Spanish attacks first • The Aztec aware of the movement towards their city of Tenochtitlan, offered Cortes that Montezuma would pay a yearly tribute to the King of Spain if Cortes halted his advances. • They also sacrificed captives offering their blood to Cortes, believing that he could be a god (Quetzalcoatl). • 11/8/1519 – Spanish enter city peacefully.
Cortes Defeats the Aztec • Cortes takes Montezuma hostage. • Rebellion lasted for days, killing 450 Spaniards and 4000 Aztec. • By August 1521 Cortes won.
New Spain Expands • New city name Mexico replaces Tenochtitlan, becoming the Spanish Colony of New Spain. • Cortes sent several leaders (conquistadors) on expeditions to conquer the rest of the regions
Francisco Pizarro • Explored South America’s west coast in 1526. • Encounters Inca empire in Peru. • Captured emperor Atahualpa • Eventually executed • New system emerged. • Some fled & fought Spanish Conquistadors until 1572.
In Search of….Cities of Gold • Conquistadors (Francisco Vasquez do Coronado) wandered from Florida, to Texas, New Mexico and various parts of the Southwestern U.S. in search of wealthy cities. • Hernando de Soto – led expeditions into north Florida, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Arkansas and Texas.
Spanish Settle in the SW • New Mexico named as territory north of New Spain. • Catholic Church became the primary force for colonizing the Southwest. • New Mexico & California used different approaches . • California – forced nomads to live near missions • New Mexico – adapted efforts to fit the lifestyles of Pueblo people, teaching Catholic ideas and European culture. • 1680 – major conflict killing 17,000 taking a decade for the Spanish to regain control.
Spanish American SocietyDefinitions • Hidalgos – low ranking nobles • Working class trades people • Encomienda- a system of rewarding conquistadors tract of land • Hacienda – Spanish word for huge ranch • Vaquero – a person who herded cattle
Mining & Ranching in Northern Mexico • Silver – huge deposits found and mined in northern Mexico • Ranches – large cattle ranches • Ultimately silver enriched Spain not gold.
Spanish Society Based on Class • Peninsulares – top – high govt, born in Spain or church positions • Criolles – born in colonies of Spanish parents, many are wealthy. • Mestizos – mixed parents (Spanish & Native American) • Lowest levels – Native Americans & Africans and those who were from mixed cultures. • Council of the Indies – advised the King and watched over all colonial activities
French Empire • Northwest Passage – Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524. • Fished in area, traded goods for furs with native americans. • 1605 – French Colony in Acadia – (Nova Scotia). • 1608- founded Quebec – becoming the capital of new colony of New France.
Life in New France • Grew slowly – by 1666 – 3000 people • Traded fur – did not clear land/farm • King Louis XIV – launched projects to build colony and sent many (some with bonuses) to build area. • 1670’s – population 7000 • 1760 – 60,000 +
French Exploring the Mississippi • 1682 -Traveled all the way to the Gulf of Mexico – (Rene-Robert Cavelier de La Salle) – the first European to do this. • Region claimed by France – called the Louisiana Territory- named after King Louis. • 1698- Biloxi Founded
Louisiana • French settlements also included Mobile and New Orleans. • Forts were built to secure the Mississippi River • Crops – sugar, rice, tobacco, indigo • Heavy labor – by 1721 – 1800 slaves enslaved Africans brought to work the plantations.
Spanish vs. French • St Augustine prospered under the Spanish, which become the first permanent town established by Europeans.
Early Spanish settlements built around forts or churches. Ranches established to grow food for miners. Society divided into rigid classes Early French was based on fur trade and efforts to protect small settlements Late grew crops on plantations in what is now known as the Southern US. Summary