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THE REFORMATION

THE REFORMATION

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THE REFORMATION

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  1. THE REFORMATION

  2. Causes of the Reformation? • Church corruption • Avignon Papacy • Conciliarism • Marsilius of Padua  Defensor Pacis [Defender of the Peace] • Attacked papal authority • The Christian community is the sum of ALL its parts! • Development of personal devotions  suspicion of clergy • Greed of secular leaders  1/3 of Europe  church land • Papal need for money  indulgences • Printing Press

  3. Avignon Papacy • Started as a fight between King of France (Phillip IV) and Pope (boniface VIII) over taxes. • Phillip arrests Boniface who dies shortly thereafter • Phillip arranged for the election of Clement V (French) placed in him Avignon. • Allows for French influence over the Papacy • Avignon papacy last from 1309-1378

  4. The Great Schism • 1378 Pope Gregory XI returns to Vatican to try to restore peace. • Dies later that year • A group of Cardinals choose new Pope Urban VI • Picked for his faithfulness to Avignon Papacy • Romans invade proceedings and Cardinals flee • Urban shuns Avignon • Cardinals see him as unfit select new Pope Clement VII (Medici), sets up shot in Avignon • Urban still in Vatican

  5. ONE CHURCH TWO POPES • Divided Popes look to create alliances. • Become political • Avignon Pope supported by France, Castile, Scotland • Roman Pope supported by HRE, England, Portugal and most of the Italian States • RELIGION IS NOW DIVIDED FIGHTHING FOR POWER

  6. The Council of Pisa • Trying to clear up Papacy issue • Council picks new Pope (Alexander V) • Other Popes refuse to resign • Popes become pawns in Rulers power struggle • Finally ends with the election of Martin V • By Council of Constance (1418)

  7. Schism leads to new movements • Schism allows people to question papal authority • Bible as a guide • Wycliff- unworthy pope did not have to be obeyed stressed faith. No Transubstantiation • Convicted as heretic in England • Hus agrees with Wycliff • Also convicted as a heretic burned at the stake

  8. The Spread of Lutheranism Leaves law school Joins Monastery 1505 1515 professor of theology Wittenberg In charge of 11 Monasteries

  9. John Tetzel –a Dominican Monk is chosen to sell indulgences in German states to raise funds for the building of St. Peter’s at the behest of Pope Leo X Oct.31, 1517 posted 95 Theses The Sermon on Good Works. .

  10. LUTHER AND THE REFORMATION Irate over the sale of indulgences WHAT IS AN INDULGENCE THE DIET OF WORMS

  11. LUTHER’S 95 THESES THE BEGINNING OF THE END Wanted to debate the sale of Indulgences

  12. Letter to Pope Leo X • excommunicated in 1520 by Papal Bull (burned) • Charles V (HRE) demanded Luther appear in Diet of Worms • Wanted Luther to recant- Luther refused • Charles V ordered his arrest • Kidnapped and protected by German Princes (Frederick the Wise) • Luther translates bible from Latin to German • publishes German New Testament.

  13. What does Luther believe? • No need for the Pope or clergy • No need for the church • NO Simony • God as Moral Authority • Salvation through Faith alone • No Indulgences • Only 2 Sacraments • Bible is the only source of truth • The ideas of worldliness • Transubstantiation

  14. John Calvin • Calvin was born on July 10, 1509. • As a child his father encouraged him to go • into law, because he was a lawyer himself. • Instead Calvin grew to love theology. • Calvin studied at the University of Paris. • In 1536 he published his first editions of Institutes of • Christian Religion .Writing this made him famous with • other Protestant leaders.

  15. John Calvin • While in Strasbourg in 1539,Calvin married Idelette DeBure. • They had one child who died in infancy. • In 1541 Calvin moved to Geneva(at the time Geneva • was struggling through Protestant Reformation),and stayed there the • rest of his life. • In 1549 Idelete died. • Geneva drafted many of his new ideas, including • the development of a new municipal school system. • In 1550 The John Calvin Academy opened.

  16. John Calvin • Calvin sought to improve the Genevans’ lives by • supporting good hospitals and proper sewage system. • In 1555 Calvin and his followers burned Michael • Serevetus,a Spanish theologian who taught • unorthodox teachings,to the stake. • In 1558 Calvin was diagnosed with Quartan fever. • In 1559 John Calvin wrote the last edition of Institutes of Christian • Religion • On May 27, 1564 John Calvin died, and was buried in an unmarked • grave.

  17. ProtestantReformation • New ideas are formed after numerous abuses within the Church, the need for change begins. • Martin Luther posts the 95 Theses on a Church door, inflaming the Catholic Church. • The Peasants’ Revolt takes over Germany, thousands were killed. • John Calvin forms new ideas of his own, forming Calvinism and a model society called Geneva. • The Protestant religion is spread throughout Europe, causing violent wars in many other countries.

  18. Became king at 17 Son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. 14yrs- did not want to marry Catherine of Aragon. Arranged marriage to brother’s widow. (Arthur) Henry VIII1491-1547

  19. HENRY VIII DEFENDER OF THE FAITH Henry VIII was the son of Henry VII Married Catherine of Aragon Widow of Henry’s brother Arthur Catherine failed to give him a son, Henry wanted a divorce, pope said “no” Starts conflict that continues today

  20. THE SIX WIVES OF HENRY VIII Pope will not grant annulment (Clement VII) Henry’s Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas More sides with Pope. Henry VIII splits with Church puts himself at the head of new church

  21. Henry started a battle with the church • The Act in Restraint of Appeals (1533) • Passed the Acts of Supremacy (1534) • Said the King controlled Church • King only supreme head on Earth • Forced people to take Oath of loyalty (Act of Succession 1534) • Thomas More refused (Beheaded) • Thomas Cramner takes Over for Wolsey (grants divorce)

  22. Six Wives • Wife # 1 - Catherine of Aragon • Married for 24 years • Pregnant many times but only Mary (1516) survived. Died 8 Jan 1536 Wife # 2 - Anne Boleyn • Secret affair with Henry • Married after Catherine was banished. • Had a female child named Elizabeth. • May 19 1536 Beheaded.

  23. Wife # 3 - Jane Seymour • October 1537 Edward was born • 12 days after she died. • Wife # 4 - Anne of Cleves - Married in Jan. 5 1540 - Less than 20 days marriage annulled • Wife # 5 - Katherine Howard - Married at 15 - “Perfect” but not really - affair, beheaded on Feb.1542

  24. Wife #6 - Katherine Parr • July 12, 1543 married • Aided Henry cause of old age. • No kids w/Henry • Did not get along with other children. • Died from childbirth problems.

  25. HENRY'S FIGHT CONTINUES Religious conflict continues after his death and the death of his only son, Edward. Mary I (Bloody Mary) wants to revert back to Catholic, kills hundreds of Protestant leaders in the process Elizabeth (Protestant by birth) tries to find a middle ground. BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER RELIGIOUS TOLERATION

  26. EnglishReformation • Henry VIII wanted his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled, asked Pope to grant his wish. • Henry became Infuriated when denied, broke away from the Catholic Church to become the head of the Anglican Church. • After Henry’s death, Mary Tutor wanted to reverse the process and make England Catholic again. • After her death, Elizabeth compromised and kept the country under Protestant rule, keeping England peaceful for her reign. • Established England as a powerful Protestant country.

  27. Tower of Londonfrom the Air

  28. Tower of London:The Bloody Tower

  29. Tower of London:Traitor’s Gate

  30. Tower Green[Where Anne Boleyn was Executed]

  31. Henry’s Deathbed

  32. Philip II & Mary Tudor

  33. Elizabeth I,Queenat last! r. 1558 - 1603

  34. Elizabeth I [1572]

  35. COUNTER REFORMATION • COUNCIL OF TRENT (PAUL III 1545-1563) • NO SIMONY • NO INDULGENCES • 7 SACREMENTS • INQUISTION • ST. IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA • ST TERESA OF AVILA

  36. CatholicReformation • Pope John Paul III wanted to push back the Protestant tide and restore Catholicism in Europe. • Reformed the Church by using new punishments to control corruption, refined the papacy. • Built the Inquisition and strengthened education, so that the new council could fight against Protestant teachings. • Re-built the Catholic Church and spread Catholic teachings across Europe, Africa, and the Americas. • The Catholic Church became strong once more, pushing back the Protestant wave.