Screening and Assessment Unit IV, Exceptional Children Kaplan University Tristram Jones, Ph.D.
Identifying the At-risk: • Kids with known conditions related to developmental disability—hearing loss, Down syndrome, poor vision. • Those delayed in motor, cognitive, communicative, psychological or self-help skills • Those deemed at risk because of biological and/or environmental events in their lives.
How do we know who the at-risk are? • Hospital records • Family Interviews • Observation • Health screenings Any of which can lead to DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT by a multidisciplinary team
How well does identifying at-risk children actually predict disabilities? • Correlational studies prove: NOT VERY WELL!
SCREENING FOR AUTISM: There are complex types of AUTISM (PDDs) or Autism Spectrum Disorders. Here are some broad categories:_______________ • AUTISM-exhibiting severely disordered verbal and nonverbal behaviors and odd behavioral patterns.
Asperger’s syndrome: Children exhibit non-verbal language problems—no marked delays in lingual and cognitive development. (Are these just kids with AUTISM and high IQs? Is ASPERGERS the same as high-functioning ASPERGERS?) • PPD-NOS: Children with non-verbal language difficulties that do not meet DSM criteria for the above diagnoses This means screening is done by clinical psy and psychiatric pros…or the State
Behavior Disorders There are so many that they often defy categorization, but we definitely think of: ANTI-SOCIAL and NON-COMPLIANT disorders, right? SCREENED by teachers or parents initially, then expertly checked with “SSBD” Standardized Screening for behavior disorders
SSBD is a “TRIPLE GATE” process • GATE ONE: Observation by teachers who determine external and internal behaviors. • The WORST THREE (!?) are selected for screening with standardized behavioral rating scales. • Highest scoring kids are observed by specialists in a number of different settings.
SCREENING FOR HEARING LOSS • Early diagnosis is essential for medical help to assist in avoiding language development problems and address the problem! Diagnosis by 3 is considered vital!
Diagnosis is Usually by Observation • Newborn screenings (increasingly used). • Parents • Pediatricians • Teachers
SCREENING FOR VISION: • Complicated by a lack of standardized instruments! • THE GOOD OLD SNELLEN CHART is as close to standard as it gets!
Every state of the Union mandates school vision testing. • So the school nurse is the first line of defense! • A Snellen chart of images exists for pre-readers. • Ramifications in reading are tested at appropriate ages • Final diagnoses are done by optometrists, of course!
Did you know there is a deviance model for the deaf? • Dr Donald F. Moores has discussed a deviance model explaining that the deaf are somehow deficient psychologically! This is based on psychological assessments that demonstrate deaf children lie outside healthy psychological parameters– should we believe this?