What is a Short Story? A piece of _________________(not real) literature that can be read in _____________sitting
Literary Elements Foreshadowing Symbolism Mood Tone Style • Plot • Character • Conflict • Theme • Setting
Plot • The _________that take place in a _______
Plot Components • Exposition- The ____________ to the story. This is the information you have at the very ___________ of the story. Could include: - __________ - A ___________ / characters - The basic thing that is happening at the very ______________ • Rising Action – All of the __________ leading up to the ________ • Climax - The ____________or point of greatest ___________ in the story • Falling Action - The events that occur after the ________ before the story is __________ • Resolution – The way the story _________ or the problem in the story is ______________ ****Sometimes a story ends at the climax!
Characters Flat Character- a character who reveals only __________ or two ________________ traits in a story or novel, and the trait(s) do __________________.Example: In “The Emperor’s New Clothes,” the Emperor only cares about his appearance. Round Characters- a __________________character who demonstrates _____________and sometimes contradictory traits. Round characters are usually dynamic (change in some way over the course of a story).Example: In “Romeo and Juliet,” Juliet’s father demonstrates varied and contradictory traits. He ranges between caring about his daughter and her feelings to wanting her to just do as he says. After he dies, he regrets his feud with the Montagues. He shows anger, happiness and sadness throughout the story.
Characters Static Characters- characters that _________________change throughout the story Example: In “Romeo and Juliet” Romeo consistently acts foolishly based on his emotions. He goes against his family and marries a girl he just met, then upon hearing she was dead, kills himself. He puts very little thought into his actions and does not learn from his rash decisions. Dynamic Characters- characters that ____________________throughout the story Example: In the short story “Charles,” a little boy begins the school year by behaving badly. However, as time goes on and he adjusts to school, he becomes better behaved and the teacher calls him her helper.
Characters • Protagonist- • _________________ character • Person on whom _____________centers • Character who pushes the action _______________ • Character who attempts to _______________ something • Usually seen as a good person or hero/heroine • Usually _____________ and dynamic • Example of protagonist:___________________ • Antagonist- • Character or ______________ that holds the action back • Character who wants something in _______________ to the protagonist • Usually seen as a bad person/force or ________________ • Example of antagonist: ____________________
Characterization • Background ______________ • Physical ________________ • How the character ___________ • How others ___________________the character
Conflict The ______________ that occurs in the story
Setting • The _________ the story takes place • The ____________ the story takes place • The ________________ in which the story takes place Describe your current setting: - Place you are at: - Current time: - Current environment:
Theme • Theme- A universal ____________ about life, or central ___________ • Examples of theme: • Love is blind • If you spend your money foolishly you could end up with nothing • Be careful who you trust because you never know who might stab you from behind
Foreshadowing A ____________the author gives of what is going to happen in the story
Symbolism • A symbol is something that _______________ something ______ • Literary examples: In “Romeo and Juliet,” saying “I bite my thumb at you” is a symbol of the frivolity of the feud between the Montagues and Capulets Real Life Examples: • When driving down the street, a green light symbolizes __________ • A red octagon sign on a street corner symbolizes _____________ • The American Flag • What does it mean to a veteran? • What does it mean to a terrorist? • Symbols can have multiple meanings!
Mood Moodis the way a work of literature makes the _____________________ Example: During the holidays, my mother's house glittered with decorations and hummed with preparations. We ate cookies and drank cider while we helped her wrap bright packages and trim the tree. We felt warm and excited, listening to Christmas carols and even singing along sometimes. We would tease each other about our terrible voices and then sing even louder. Mood: Content, happy. How do we know? Words like "warm, excited, glittered” are used by the author.
Tone • Tone is the author’s _______________ • You can recognize the tone/attitude by the language/____________the author uses. His language will reveal his perspective/________ (that is, whether it is positive/negative) about the _________. • Tone must be inferred through the use of _________________words.
Tone Example The girls were playing in the pond, splashing each other and trying to catch fish with their hands. They were having fun, but kept looking over their shoulders at the looming forest. The long grass of the field kept moving and they sort of felt like they were being watched… About a half hour passed and still the girls kept checking the field for movements. It seemed like a pair of dark eyes was on them. They even considered going back inside, but that would mean homework time. So they continued splashing, but with caution now. Their eyes hardly left the field. • The tone of this passage is ominous, suggesting a little bit of fear or foreboding. Words like "caution, dark, and looming“ lead readers to the tone.
Tone “A Gift in His Shoes” Donovan and Larry were early for baseball practice. They decided to run up and down the bleachers to exercise before the rest of the team arrived. Larry was first to the top. He whispered to Donovan, “Look over there.” He pointed to a man sleeping on the highest, narrow bench of the bleachers. His pants and shirt were faded, worn, and too large for his thin frame. One big toe stuck out of a huge hole in his sock. His scraped-up shoes sat a few feet away. Donovan whispered, “We should help him out. Let’s hide something good in his shoes. Then, when he wakes up, he will have a nice surprise.”
Tone: “A Gift in His Shoes” How would you describe the tone [attitude] of this author? • Angry • Detached • Sympathetic Evidence?
Style • Style is the way the author ___________. • STYLE is the way the author uses words, _________, and sentences. The author’s: • personal word choice/_____________ • types of _____________ • ____________from which the text is told • ____________ of the text • These 4 components will reveal his/her style.
Style • When analyzing an author’s style, we need to consider: • ____________________ • formal or ___________writing • organization/__________ of text • level of ______________ in the writing overall tone • By using these features in writing, different meanings of the content are shown to the audience
Style: Point of View • First person: (_________, me, my)I went to the store today. When I was in the cereal aisle, I bumped into an old friend and had a nice conversation. • Second person: (__________; instructions/directions) You should work on getting your room cleaned. First, pick up the clothes on the floor. Then, you need to run a vacuum and dust the tables. • Third person – limited: (______/she/it/_________/them told through 1 character) He could tell from the expression on her face that what he had said upset her. If only he knew, though, what she was really thinking. • Third-person Omniscient (______________________): (he/she/it/they/them told by the author; all characters’ feelings/thoughts are revealed) She refused to look at Jamie again and instead stared at the statue. “Come on!” exclaimed Jamie impatiently. “It’s time to go.” Sara ignored Jamie and continued to gaze upon the statue wishing she, too, could be so still and at peace.
Style: Formal vs. Informal • Formal: Dear Sir, After examining your job description, I feel I am an excellent candidate. I have many years of experience performing these specific duties. My résumé is attached. Please read it over at your convenience and contact me if you have questions. Sincerely, Andrew Meyer • Informal: Hey, Sara! What's going on tonight? Call me before you guys leave, okay?--Beth
Style: Formal vs. Informal Formal Informal Vocabulary – low-level; perhaps slang; dialogue Organization of text – more so narrative or note-like Audience – usually personal (more first or third-limited) Sentences – don’t vary as much in structure; mostly simple or compound sentences • Vocabulary: high-level; business-like • Organization of text: very structured; perhaps with subtopics • Audience – usually 3rd-omnisicient (except for business letters) • Sentences: structure varies
Works Cited www.thereadingspot.com/documents/styles-tone-mood.ppt http://www.fictionfactor.com/guests/common.html