Crossroads 9 • In this unit we will explore short stories and the elements of fiction. Reading the stories will include the following tasks: • Complete the vocabulary (you will be tested on spelling, definitions, and application). • Complete the comprehension questions. • Complete the writing assignment.
What is a Short Story? Write your own definition of both a short story and a novel. Below your definitions, brainstorm about short stories – any words you have learned connected to short stories, titles of stories, authors, etc. NOTE: Do not write “A story that is short”! Use what you know about short stories and novels in the past.
What is a Short Story? • Short story refers to a work of fiction that is usually written in prose. • Fiction is anything imaginatively invented, a feigned existence, event, or state of things. • Prose is composed of full sentences, usually divided into paragraphs – it usually resembles everyday speech. • A short story is a story that is under 40,000 words in length and can be read in a single sitting.
Vocabulary genre – a class or category having a particular form, technique, content, etc. E.g. poetry, novels, fantasy, science fiction prose – the ordinary form of spoken or written language, as distinguished from poetry or verse fiction – the class of literature comprising works of imaginative narration
Vocabulary • Plot- events in a story. • Characters- people in a story. • Setting- time and place of the story. • Point of View- who is telling the story. • Theme- The theme of a story represents what the protagonist (main character) and/or reader learns about life. It is the “message” that the author is sending through the story.
Grammar Break! • Take out your independent reading novel. • Find 5 examples of each of the following: • Nouns • Verbs • Adjectives • Adverbs (Definitions on the next page).
Language – Parts of Speech Review Noun – a person, place, thing, or idea Adjective – a word that describes a noun; describes colour, quantity, etc. Verb – an action word Adverb – a word that describes a verb; usually ends in “-ly” (e.g. quickly, carefully)
The Short Story The oldest form of literature. Prose fiction. A distinct genre (like poetry, novels, plays). Every word counts! There is a strong focus on word choice, because this is how the author prunes and polishes the piece to meet his/her objective(s). The Short Story Genre
Thank You Ma’am (p. 72) - Vocabulary Find the definition. Write a sentence. Practice Spelling. • permit • ashamed • ought • icebox • pocketbook
Thank You Ma’am (p. 72) - Comprehension Questions 8. Put the following events in order: __The woman drags the boy up the street. __The boy washes his face. __The woman turns the boy loose. __The boy snatches the woman’s purse. __The boy thanks the woman. __The woman grabs the boy by his shirt front. __The woman gives the boy money to buy a pair of blue suede shoes. __The woman cooks dinner. __The boy offers to go to the store. __The woman tells the boy about her job in a hotel beauty shop.
Thank You Ma’am (p. 72) - Comprehension Questions • Why do you think Mrs. Jones takes Roger home with her instead of calling the police? • After she releases Roger, Mrs. Jones leaves her door open and the purse on the bed. Why does she do this? Why doesn’t Roger take the purse and run? • How does Mrs. Jones show that she does not want to embarrass Roger or hurt his feelings? • Why do you think Mrs. Jones gives Roger the ten dollars? What do you think Roger has learned from Mrs. Jones?
5. How does Langston Hughes make Mrs. Jones a true-to-life character? 6. While he is in Mrs. Jones’ apartment, Roger has an opportunity to steal her purse and run, but he does not do so. Is his behaviour consistent? Give reasons for your answer. 7. Why does Mrs. Jones take Roger into her home? Why does she cook for him and give him money? Are her motives believable? Give reasons for your answer.
Purpose and Audience The purpose of persuasive writing is to discuss and/or debate ideas by developing an argument to convince the reader to agree with the writer’s argument. An understanding of the audience for the piece will impact upon the choice of details to support the main idea, as well as the organization and word choice.
Organization of Persuasive Writing A persuasive piece will follow this basic structure: Opening statement – provides an overview of the topic and states the writer’s position. Arguments and Reasons – provides three or more arguments or assertions that have supporting statements or details drawn from facts or personal experience. The arguments also sometimes identify other points of view and counter-arguments. Conclusion – includes a statement to reinforce or summarize the position.
Special Features of Persuasive Writing • Employs persuasive devices (e.g. quotes from experts/text, examples, anecdotes [stories], irony, wit, humour). • Uses linking words and phrases (e.g. however, because, also). • Uses present tense primarily; speaks directly to the reader. • Uses first person (e.g. I, we). • Uses persuasive adjectives and adverbs (e.g. most, must, strongly).
Thank You Ma’am (p. 72)Writing Assignment In 3 persuasive paragraphs, respond to the following question: Imagine you are Roger and you have just gotten in trouble at school. Your principal threatens to expel you unless you can give him a good reason not to. Since meeting Mrs. Jones you’ve learned a lot and know you have to stay in school. Write a letter (as though you were Roger) convincing your principal not to expel you.
Thank You Ma’am (p. 72)Writing Assignment • In groups of 4: each person will take turns reading your letters aloud. • Then, pass around the letters and make one positive comment and one thing they can work on. • Next, pick one letter to be read to the class. • Finally, make any changes to the draft that you feel could be made at this point and put the letter in your journal.
Acceptance (p. 33) – Vocabulary and questions Find the definition. Write a sentence. • acceptance • uncertainly • exposed • library • tensed • Sneer • Responding to the Story page 34 #1 (a-e). • Write a one page continuation of the story in your journal.
Acceptance (p. 33) - Comprehension Questions • Responding to the Story page 34 #1 (a-e). 2.Write a one page continuation of the story in your journal.
Acceptance (p. 33)Writing Assignment In a persuasive poster, respond to the Media Maker question on page 34.
Using the DictionaryFinnigan From Building English Skills • Complete Exercises A (see pages 26-30) & B (pp 31-33) and C (use a dictionary). • Complete Exercises A page 35 (ONLY DO 3 SENTENCES FOR EACH WORD –NOT 5) • Complete Exercises C, D on page 34-36.
Using the Dictionary TEST From Building English Skills • Complete Exercises • A PAGE 40 • C PAGE 40 (1,2,3) • D PAGE 41 (ODDS – 1,3,5,7,9) • E PAGE 41 (#1-5)
PURPOSE: Why Short Stories? There are principally THREE reasons for reading/writing short stories: • To entertain • The first purpose of a short story is to enjoy it. Authors want you to enjoy a short story (and usually to pay money for it).
Why Short Stories? 2. To teach • Often, the author has a particular point of view on an issue that he/she wants to share. The story is the medium the author uses to convey the message. This is the stage of analysis at which understanding symbol, meaning, and other literary devices is important.
Why Short Stories? 3. To raise questions • Often, a specific “message” from the author is not clear; other times, there is no “message” from the author per se. Rather, the author might be simply trying to get the reader to think about things in a new way, or to question things that the reader might have already made up his/her mind about.
Why Short Stories? 1. To entertain. 2. To teach. 3. To raise questions. It is important to remember that each short story can have two or all three purposes at the same time.
On the Sidewalk Bleeding (p. 35) - Vocabulary Find the definition. Write a sentence. Practice Spelling. • delicately • excruciating • fierce • steadily • knowledge
On the Sidewalk Bleeding (p. 35) -Comprehension Questions • Responding to the Story page 43 #1 (a-d).
On the Sidewalk Bleeding (p. 43)Writing Assignment • Create a Newspaper Article and put it in your writing folder.
The Five Elements of a Short Story • Plot • Character • Setting • Atmosphere • Style
Vocabulary Plot – the arrangement of incidents or events in a story; “what happens” in the story. Plot line – a way of visually demonstrating a story’s structure by plotting incidents along a line; plot lines can vary for different forms of fiction
Plot of a Short Story 4 5 6 3 crises 2 1
Plot of a Short Story • Exposition (or Opening Situation) – The reader is informed of the setting and is introduced to the main characters. • Inciting Force (or Complication) – A conflict is usually established between characters. This conflict “gets things started”. • Rising Action – The conflict between characters develops and becomes more pronounced. Involves a series of crises (conflicts).
Plot of a Short Story 4. Climax – The moment of greatest suspense; a point of conflict that will lead to the resolution of the main plot. 5. Falling Action – The result of the outcome of the climactic conflict. Can involve a crisis, but in a short story is usually very short. 6. Denouement (or Resolution, or Final Outcome) – The writer attempts to have the reader leave the story satisfied.
“You are, when all is done – just what you are.” On the Sidewalk Bleeding
Plot – On the Sidewalk Bleeding 4 5 6 3 2 1
Assignment – In your notebook, draw a plot line. Label the plotline with numbers and dots for the crises. Then, using the numbers as a “key” or guide, explain the plot of “On the Sidewalk Bleeding”.
Plot of “On the Sidewalk Bleeding” • Exposition (or Opening Situation) – • Inciting Force (or Complication) – • Rising Action –
Plot of “On the Sidewalk Bleeding” 4. Climax – 5. Falling Action – 6. Denouement (or Resolution, or Final Outcome) – Has the protagonist changed during the thirty-one minutes of the story?
Kath and Mouse (p. 62) - Vocabulary Find the definition. Write a sentence. Practice Spelling. • skitter • instrument • afterwards • oboe • Bob Dylan
Kath and Mouse (p. 62) –Comprehension Questions and Writing Assignment • Responding to the Story page 67 #1 (a-d). • Reading Using Conflict (68) • Story Craft Narrative Point of View (69)
Kath and Mouse (p. 62) –Comprehension Questions and Writing Assignment • Responding to the Story page 67 #1 (a-d). • Reading Using Conflict (68) • Story Craft Narrative Point of View (69) • Page 68: Create a Sequel: 2 pages double space, MLA
Kath and Mouse (p. 62) Writing Assignment 1. Writer’s Desk Create a Sequel (68)
Homework:VOICE – Write a Friendly Letter Take on the role of Kate and write a letter home to her brother, Matt, or to another family member. Be sure to stay true to the character – for example, Kate probably wouldn’t tell her brother about the Moon Maiden, but she might tell her parents or friends. She would use a different tone with her dad than she would with her best friend, too!