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Music History

Music History

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Music History

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  1. Music History An Abbreviated History of Western Classical Music

  2. The Classical Period1750 - 1820 • Refined • Structured • Emotionally restrained The music of Classical Period is frequently described as:

  3. The Classical Period Because Vienna became the cultural center of Europe during this time period, it is sometimes referred to as the Viennese Classical Period.

  4. The Classical Period1750 - 1820 • Rise of the lower and middle classes • American Revolution (July 4, 1776) • French Revolution (July 14, 1789) • Napoleonic Wars (1792 – 1815) • More time for leisure activities, including going to concerts (paid admission)

  5. The Classical Period1750 - 1820 • Advances in Science: • Eli Whitney (cotton gin) • James Watt (metric unit of electrical power, coined the term “horsepower”)

  6. Musical Characteristics • Clarity of form • Simplicity in harmony • Greater use of written dynamics • Tremendous growth in the development of opera • Development of the symphony orchestra • “Absolute music”

  7. Symphony Orchestra • Strings: first violins, second violins, viola, ‘cello, double bass • Woodwinds: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon • Brass: trumpet, French horn, trombone, tuba • Percussion: snare drum, bass drum, timpani, cymbals • NOTE: no continuo (keyboard)

  8. Piano replaces harpsichord and organ as the most important solo keyboard instrument

  9. Replica of 1790’s Forte Piano

  10. Forte Piano

  11. Instrumental Musical Forms • Sonata Form • Allegro • Adagio III. Minuet IV. Allegro

  12. Types of Sonatas • Solo Sonata: Solo keyboard, or solo instrument with piano accompaniment • Symphony: a sonata for full symphony orchestra • Concerto: a sonata for a solo instrument with full orchestra

  13. Sonata Allegro Form • Introduction • Exposition • Development • Recapitulation • Coda

  14. Franz Joseph Haydn1732 - 1809

  15. Musical Example Symphony No. 94 in G (“Surprise”) by F.J. Haydn Second Movement - Andante

  16. Musical Example Symphony No. 101 in D (“Clock”) by F.J. Haydn Second Movement - Andante

  17. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart1756 - 1791

  18. Musical Example Symphony No. 41 in C K.550 (“Jupiter”) by W.A. Mozart First Movement – Allegro Vivace Sonata Allegro Form

  19. Ludwig van Beethoven1770 - 1827

  20. Musical Example Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op.67 by L.V. Beethoven First Movement – Allegro con Brio uses short “motif” as main theme

  21. The End