Parent-Child Relations(PSY530) Tomo Umemura 23.10.2013 CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0037 Employment of Best Young Scientists for International Cooperation Empowerment
Roles of parents in adolescents Overview for today • How to summarize previous studies. • Smetana, J., et al. (2006). Disclosure and secrecy in adolescent-parent relationships. Child Development, 77, 201-217. • Stattin, H., & Kerr, M. (2000). Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. Child development, 71, 1072-1085.
The first draft is due on November 6th. • Bring two copies of your first draft on November 6th. • Your first draft should include title page, introduction paragraph, bodies, and concluding paragraph, and reference section. • Your first draft include at least 2 citations (4 citations in your final paper) • Your first draft is 10% of your paper points. Timetable: • October 16: Return your intro paragraph (APA quiz) • October 23: How to find journal articles relevant to you paper • October 30: How to summarize previous studies. • November 6: The first draft due
Guidelines for writing introduction paragraph 3 things you need to include in your intro paragraph: • Describe how important your topic is. • Define your topic if needed • Describe your topic in very general terms at the end of the paragraph • Optional: Include your take-home message(s).
How to summarize previous studies • After introduction paragraph, you need to: • Describe one or more theories that provide an explanation of the topic you are exploring (only if possible for this class). • Describe relevant research findings (this will be the main part of your paper). • Conclude the current understanding of topic with your idea.
How to summarize previous studies • Describe one or more theories that provide an explanation of the topic you are exploring (only if possible for this class). “Bowlby (1969/1982) theorized that infants who have received sensitive and responsive care from their mother are securely attached to her and are more able to seek comfort to her when needed. These secure infants use their mother as a safe base that allows them to explore their environment. Ainsworth and her colleagues (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978) elaborated on Bowlby’s ideas about the quality of attachment relationships by identifying groups of secure and insecure babies and demonstrating that maternal sensitivity predicts secure versus insecure infant-mother attachment patterns. ”
How to summarize previous studies • Describe relevant research findings. • Let the reader know the general survey of previous findings. • “The relationship between hours of nonmaternal care and the quality of an infant’s attachment relationship with the mother is unclear because findings from studies examining this association have yielded mixed results. Specifically, one study found…” • “Similarities between Doi’s and Bowlby’s theories can also be found in empirical findings, although only three studies relating attachment and amaehave been conducted. Specifically, Mizuta, Zahn-Waxler, Cole, and Hiruma (1996) conducted…” • Provide a summary of the most recent directly related work and recognize the priority of the work of others. • Citations of relevant earlier works are essential for the growth of cumulative science. • Cite only works important to the specific issue (not works indirectly or vaguely related). • Demonstrate the logical continuity among previous works. • “Other researchers, however, did not replicate this finding. Specifically, based on previous studies, Roggman, Langlois, Hubbs-Tait, and Rieser-Danner (1994) developed” • “In contrast, Vereijken, Riksen-Walraven, and VanLieshout (1997) did not find an association between amaeand attachment security. ”
How to summarize previous studies • Describe relevant research findings. • When summarizing earlier works, avoid nonessential details; instead, emphasize important findings, relevant methodological issues, and major conclusions. • Make the problem generally understood by as wide audiences as possible. • Add sufficient information about technical terms and special methodologies. • “Posada et al. (1995) examined how mothers in China, Colombia, Germany, Israel, Japan, Norway, and the United States described their own and the ideal child’s behavior at home. Mothers were asked to sort 90 different child behaviors into nine piles evenly (from the most descriptive to the least descriptive). This assessment is called the Attachment Q-sort (Waters & Diane, 1985). Some of the behaviors included in this assessment pertain to the secure-base concept and some do not. One example of secure-base-related item is “If held in mother’s arms, child stops crying and quickly recovers after being frightened or upset.” On the other hand, the following example is not closely related to secure-base behavior: “Child spends most of his playtime with just a few favorite toys or activities.” On average, all mothers in the seven countries…”
How to summarize previous studies • Conclude the current understanding of topic with your idea. • Conclude findings from the previous studies with brief but formal statements. • Concluding paragraph should be tightly reasoned, self-contained, and not overstated. • Include problem(s) of previous studies and explain your approach to solving the problem(s). • In empirical studies, this usually involves stating your hypotheses or specific questions • Describe how your approach was derived from theory or are logically connected to previous data and argumentation. • Briefly return to a discussion of why the problem is important (as stated in the introduction paragraph) (only if possible for this class)
How to summarize previous studies Organize your paper: • In your paper, if you were to read only the first sentence of each paragraph, it would tell a story. The sentences that follow your first sentence are backing up your main idea for that paragraph (no paragraph should have more than one main idea). • Do not use personal examples or experiences. • Make a smooth transition between sentences and between paragraphs.
Hierarchy of Parents • Umemura et al. (2012). Do toddlers prefer the primary caregiver or the parent with whom they feel more secure? The role of toddler emotion. • Surrogate mothers in India: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-24275373 • Kobaket al. (2007). Adolescent attachment hierarchies and the search for an adult pair bond. • Premature reorganization of attachment hierarchy from parents to peers: association with deviant peers, sexual risk-taking behaviors, delinquent/antisocial behavior
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • Previous studies: Monitoring (tracking and surveillance) of children’s behavior is considered an essential parenting skill. Well-monitored youths are less involved in delinquency and other normbreakingbehaviors. • Results: Parental knowledge came mainly from child disclosure, and was most closely linked to broad and narrow measures of delinquency (normbreaking and police contact). • Conclusion: Tracking and surveillance is not the best prescription for parental behavior and that a new prescription must rest on an understanding of the factors that determine child disclosure.
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • I did not understand how exactly did researchers calculate particular scores. Was it just usual mean? Because not all questions seem to me to be equal. For example, in the normbreakingsubscale, there are questions as "Have you drunk beer, liquor, or wine to the point of feeling drunk?" and also "Have you purposely vandalized something (...)?" I can see a big difference between these two and I think there should have been added "weight" of each item to asses it more precisely. Because almost every teenager has been ever drunk but vandalizing is more serious problem.
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • The method which was used in Stattin´s and Kerr´s study consisted of questions like: Do you know who your child´s friends are? Do you know how wellyour child does in particular subjects? etc. But wouldn´t it be more effective to ask specific questions like : "Can you write names of your child´s bestfriends? What marks does your child have in math this term?"I am afraid, that parents might have a tendency to overestimate themselves in monitoring and answer in that way. They might feel like they know everything,but the reality might be different.
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • Adolescents and parents rated how often they „usually tell or are willing to tell their mother (or father), without them asking“. Is it really the same to tell and to will to tell? Maybe adolescents would will or want to share something, but for some reasons they just decide to don´t do it and not to tell their parents anything. Would it make a difference in the results? For example, somebody could answer that he/she „always tell“, meaning „is always willing to tell“, but for some reasons in fact almost never tell about these issues to the parents. One could perceive himself to be willing todo something, meaning to be more open and disclosed, and not be aware of some unconscious reasons, why he doesn´t do it so often.
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • „Another explanation is that parents have done something to build up the kinds of relationships that facilitate communication“ (Stattin & Kerr, 2000).What is it more specifically? What advice can we give to parents who want to do something about their children´s behavioural problems?
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • “When several aspects of parenting are examined together, the ﬁndings oftensuggest that parent–child communication is more beneﬁcial than surveillance andcontrol.” This is one of the main conclusions of the text. But how can we establish a good communication since the beginning of the relation? Most of the time we realize that we have a dysfunctional parent-child communication but it is already too late..
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • According to Shattin and Kerr (2000), there is no significant difference between disclosure of ‘deviant’ and ‘non-deviant’ children. In other words, children talk to parents about their activities no matter if those activities are considered to be deviant or not. • How can we explain that children talk to their parents no matter if they have something to hide or not? • I think that socialization and self-concept play important role in possible explanation. ‘Non-deviant’ kids internalized values dominant in their society (e.g. “One should not break the rules”, “One should obey to his or her parents”) and in the end they oversee themselves (see Michel Foucalt’sPanopticon). Among other variables, their image of themselves (a good kid) greatly contributes to disclosure. In contrary, ‘deviant’ kids could have a quite different self-concept in which breaking the rules is consonant with the way how they think about themselves. Following that, they might feel comfortable when they could openly talk about their misbehavior. • What possible explanation is correct according to you?
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • In the study, girls reported being controlled more than boys even though parents reported controlling boys more than girls. I was wondering about possible reasons for this phenomenon?
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • If we think back to mothers being the secure base for the child now growing into an adolescent and think back seeing the father using "the influences on responsible fathering: a conceptual model."Are there any of those fathering factors that has an "negative" influence to why adolescent chose to disclose more to mothers than to fathers? Any specific research?
Smetanaet al. (2006). Disclosure and secrecy in adolescent-parent relationships. • I have read (in Smetana et al., 2006)that mothers overestimated theirdaughters´ disclosure and rated their daughters as more disclosing than theyactually were. Is there any explanation for this?
Smetanaet al. (2006). Disclosure and secrecy in adolescent-parent relationships. • Since boys and girls in this study did not differ in their disclosure or secrecy regarding any of the issues with fathers and additionally girls were reported to disclose to mothers (with a relevant difference) than to fathers, we can make a conclusion fathers are quite “cut off” from information about their children-adolescents life coming directly from them. What could be the reasons and outcomes of such a situation in their relationship?
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • After reading text about parental monitoring I was wondering how that study can be useful for other countries/society. Sweden is well known as a country of high living standards and very well working social system. So how survey from one of the wealthiest countries in the world can be applied to other nations especially considering so many different cultural variables and wealthy levels. Can it be a guidance, example for other society or just a dry statistics?
Stattin& Kerr (2000) Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. • I have got a little bit more philosophic question... What kind of information is the must to tell to parents? How much should be the adolescent honest? I am wondering, if they need to know everything about children´s life or what they can keep like the secret?
Smetanaet al. (2006). Disclosure and secrecy in adolescent-parent relationships. • Domains of issues: • Prudential (Drinking, smoking, going to party, using drugs) • Socially regulated (moral and conventional: how friends are treated, spreading rumors, keeping promises, saying rude) • Multifaceted (Websites visited, movies watched, hanging out with unlikable friends, if dating) • Personal (how spend free time, how spend money, what talk about on the phone with friends, who have a crush on) • Adolescents feel more obligated to disclose prudential issues and less obligated to disclose personal than moral, conventional, and multifaceted issues. • Parents viewed adolescents as more obligated to disclose to parents than adolescents perceived themselves to be. • Adolescents disclosed more to mothers than to fathers, particularly regarding personal issues, but mothers overestimated girls’ disclosure. • Greater trust, perceived obligations to disclose, and, for personal issues, more parental acceptance and psychological control predicted more disclosure and less secrecy.
Homework • Read two articles • Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: a meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 110, 26. • Davies, P. T., & Woitach, M. J. (2008). Children's emotional security in the interparental relationship. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 269-274. • Email me your thought question(s) by Tuesday midnight. • Bring two copies of your first draft.