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Unit 9. PLANT STRUCTURE & FUNCTION. Plant tissue, leaves, roots and stems. Four major plant divisions Three primary cell types that make up plant tissue Two Major Organs:Roots and stems. The stages in a plant's life cycle. Alternation of generations between:

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  2. Plant tissue, leaves, roots and stems. • Four major plant divisions • Three primary cell types that make up plant tissue • Two Major Organs:Rootsand stems

  3. The stages in a plant's life cycle. • Alternation of generations between: • the nonvascular plants, • the seedless vascular plants • the seed plants.

  4. The stages in a plant's life cycle. • The sporophyte stage in a plant's life cycle • the gametophyte stage.


  6. Plant Diversity

  7. Land plants evolved from green algae • plants  multicellular eukaryotes • produce food  photosynthesis • adapted to life on land

  8. Land plants evolved from green algae • Both have chlorophyll (green) • Both use starch  storage • Both have cell walls  cellulose • Algae reproduction: sperm travels to fertilize egg (in water)

  9. Plant Adaptations • retain moisture • transport water and other resources • grow upright • reproduce without free-standing water

  10. Bryophytes • Liverworts have a thin, leathery body that grows flat on moist soil or, in some cases, the surface of still water. • Mosses have an erect shoot bearing tiny leaf-like structures arranged in spirals.

  11. Bryophytes • 24000 species • Moist, humid habitats • Non-vascular land plants • Fertilization requires free water • Cuticle and stomata sometimes present • Haploid generation is dominant

  12. Bryophytes

  13. Bryophytes Riccia sp., a liverwort Colony of the moss Bryum sp.

  14. Bryophytes Gigaspermumrepens, a moss

  15. Bryophytes Ceratophyllumdemersum Common Hornwort

  16. Club Mosses/Horsetails/Ferns • Seedless vascular plants • Fertilization requires free water • Diploid generation dominates • Cuticle & stomata present

  17. Club Mosses/Horsetails/Ferns • Club mosses • 1100 species, simple leaves • Wet, shady habitats • Horsetails • 25 species • Swamps, disturbed habitats

  18. Club Mosses/Horsetails/Ferns • Ferns • 12000 species • Wet, humid habitats (tropical/ temperate)

  19. Club Mosses/Horsetails/Ferns • African club moss (Selaginellakraussiana) • Forms mats on damp forest floor • Grows on tree trunks • Tolerates a wide range of conditions • Originally from southern Africa, first noticed in the wild in New Zealand in 1919. • Because it tolerates shady forest floors it smothers native seedlings, opening up the area to other weeds such as vines.

  20. Club Mosses/Horsetails/Ferns L: Horsetails (Equisetum spp) R: Common horsetail (Equisetum arvense)

  21. Club Mosses/Horsetails/Ferns Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantumpedatum) One of the more desirable ferns because of its graceful foliage. These will reach a height of 12-24 inches tall. They will clump up nicely and add a delicate look to your shade garden. Must have rich moist soil.

  22. Club Mosses/Horsetails/Ferns Japanese Painted Ferns (Athyriumniponicum)

  23. Gymnosperms • Vascular plants with “naked” seeds • Free water not needed for fertilization • Diploid generation dominates • Cuticle and stomata present

  24. Gymnosperms • Conifers • 550 species • Mostly evergreen • Woody trees & shrubs • Pollen and seed-bearing cones • Widespread distribution

  25. Gymnosperms • Cycads • 130 slow-growing species • Tropical/sub-tropical

  26. Gymnosperms • Ginkgo • 1 species • Tree with fleshy coated seeds • Gnetophytes • 70 species • Desert, tropics • Closest evolutionary relationship to the flowering plants

  27. Gymnosperms Balsam Fir (AbiesBalsamea)

  28. Gymnosperms Eastern white pine (Pinusstrobus)

  29. Gymnosperms Nootka Cypress (Callitropsisnootkatensis)

  30. Gymnosperms English yew (Taxusbaccata)

  31. Gymnosperms Ginkgo biloba from the Eocene epoch (~ 56-34 mya) is a living fossil – a species that (seemingly) hasn't changed during its very long lifetime (i.e. as if the fossil has always lived).

  32. Gymnosperms Ephedra distachya (A typical gnetophyte)

  33. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants • Dominate the plant kingdom • monocots, eudicots and Magnoliids • Plant body is divided into shoots and roots

  34. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants • Vascular plants • Protected seeds • Free water not needed for fertilization • Cuticle and stomata present

  35. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants • Monocots • 80000 species • Flower parts arranged in 3s or multiples of 3s • 1 seed leaf • Parallel leaf veins • Pollen with 1 furrow • Vascular bundles spread out

  36. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants • Magnoliids • 9200 species • Flowers arranged in a spiral • 2 seed leaves • Net-veined leaves • Pollen has 1 furrow

  37. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants

  38. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants • Eudicots (dicots) • >170000 species • Floral parts in 4s, 5s, or multiples • 2 seed leaves • Net-veined leaves • Pollen has 3 or more furrows • Vascular bundles in a ring

  39. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants

  40. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants Lilium Tulipagesneriana

  41. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants

  42. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) Crabapple (Malus)

  43. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants

  44. The Study of Plants • Botanyis the study of plants • Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their effects on the body; many drugs are plant-based • Ethnobotany is the scientific study of the relationships that exist between peoples and plants


  46. The “Typical” Plant • The Root System • Underground (usually) • Anchor the plant in the soil • Absorb water and nutrients • Conduct water and nutrients • Food Storage

  47. The “Typical” Plant • The Shoot System • Above ground (usually) • Elevates the plant above the soil • Includes leaves and reproductive organs

  48. The “Typical” Plant • The Shoot System • Functions: • Photosynthesis • reproduction & dispersal • food and water conduction

  49. Plant Cell Types • Parenchyma • operate while alive • large vacuoles with thin walls • in leaves, they contain chloroplasts and are called chlorenchyma

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