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Discussion Questions

Discussion Questions

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Discussion Questions

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  1. Discussion Questions • What defines a computer: • What is the simplest definition of a computer you can come up with? • What defines a modern computer? • What was the first computer? • If you don’t know, make a guess

  2. Definition of Computer

  3. Definition of a Computer • Information Processor • Input and Output

  4. Definition of Modern Computer • Inputs, outputs, processes and stores information • Physical: Keyboard, monitor, etc. – are these necessary components?

  5. History of Computers - Long, Long Ago Abacus - 3000 BC • beads on rods to count and calculate • still widely used in Asia!

  6. History of Computers - Way Back When Slide Rule Slide Rule 1630 based on Napier’s rules for logarithms used until 1970s

  7. History of Computers - 19th Century • Joseph Marie Jacquard • First stored program - metal cards • Did no computing • first computer manufacturing • still in use today! • Babbage knew of and intended use… Jacquard Loom - 1801

  8. Charles Babbage - 1792-1871 Analytical Engine • Difference Engine c.1822 • huge calculator, never finished • Analytical Engine 1833 • could store numbers • calculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructions • powered by steam! • accurate to six decimal places • Inspiration for Herman Hollerith for 1890 census

  9. Discussion Question • What was the biggest advance that led to modern computers? • Electricity • Transistor • Microchip • Data storage

  10. Vacuum Tubes - 1941 - 1956 • First Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum Tubes • Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside. • Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protects the circuitry.

  11. UNIVAC – 1950-51 • first fully electronic digital computer built in the U.S. • Created at the University of Pennsylvania • contained 18,000 vacuum tubes • Cost $487,000 • ENIAC that preceded it (late 1940s) weighed 30 tons

  12. Grace Hopper (1906-1992) • Programmed UNIVAC • Recipient of Computer Science’s first “Man of the Year Award” • First compiler for a computer programming language, led to COBOL • Recall her from PC history video

  13. First Computer Bug - 1945 • Relay switches part of computers • Grace Hopper found a moth stuck in a relay responsible for a malfunction • Called it “debugging” a computer

  14. First Transistor • Used Silicon (semiconductor) • developed in 1948 • won a Nobel prize • on-off switch • 2nd Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956

  15. Second Generation – 1965-1963 • 1956 – Computers began to incorporate Transistors • Replaced vacuum tubes with Transistors • Note introduction of the Integrated Circuit • Jack Kilby (1958 – Texas Instruments) and Robert Noyce (Fairchild Semiconductors) separately invented the IC or integrated circuit at the same time.

  16. Integrated Circuits • Third Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips). • Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip” • First one made by Texas Instruments in 1958

  17. Operating System • Software – Instructions for Computer • ‘Operating system’ is set of instructions loaded each time a computer is started • ‘Program’ is instructions loaded when needed

  18. Third Generation – 1964-1971 • 1964-1971 • Integrated Circuit • Operating System • Getting smaller, cheaper

  19. The First Microprocessor – 1971 Intel 4004 Microprocessor • The 4004 had 2,250 transistors • four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s) • 108Khz • Called “Microchip”

  20. What is a Microchip? • Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC) • Transistors, resistors, and capacitors • 4004 had 2,250 transistors • Pentium IV had 42 MILLION transistors • Each transistor 0.13 microns (10-6 meters) • Modern Pentium -- 624 or 504 million

  21. 4th Generation – began 1971 • MICROCHIPS! • Getting smaller and smaller, but we are still using microchip technology

  22. Birth of Personal Computers - 1975 MITS Altair • 256 byte memory (not Kilobytes or Megabytes) • 2 MHz Intel 8080 chips • Just a box with flashing lights • cost $395 kit, $495 assembled.

  23. Over the past 50 years, the Electronic Computer has evolved rapidly. Connections: • Which evolved from the other, which was an entirely new creation • vacuum tube • integrated circuit • transistor • microchip

  24. Evolution of Electronics Microchip (VLSIC) Integrated Circuit Transistor Vacuum Tube

  25. Evolution of Electronics • Vacuum Tube – a dinosaur without a modern lineage • What still uses vacuum tubes? • Transistor  Integrated Circuit  Microchip

  26. First Mass Market PC

  27. IBM PC - 1981 • IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture • First wide-selling personal computer used in business • 8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors • 4.77 Mhz processing speed • 256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard • One or two floppy disk drives • Open architecture

  28. Apple Computers • Founded 1977 • Apple II released 1977 • widely used in schools • Macintosh (left) • released in 1984, Motorola 68000 Microchip processor • first commercial computer with graphical user interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse)

  29. Along the way, 80s & 90s • Timex Sinclair • Texas Instruments TI computer • Radio Shack, TRS 80 • Commodore 64 / 128 • Commodore Amiga • Along with ‘compatibles’—Compaq, Dell, eMachines, Gateway, etc.

  30. Commodore recently • C64 recreation • C64x Extreme • .Amiga

  31. 1990s: Pentiums and Power Macs • Early 1990s began penetration of computers into every niche: every desk, most homes, etc. • Faster, less expensive computers paved way for this • Windows 95 was first decent GUI for “PCs” • Macs became more PC compatible - easy file transfers • Apple effort at licensing OS (Power Computing) • Mac conversion to Intel chip • Prices have plummeted • $2000 for entry level to $400-$500 • $6000 for top of line to $1000-$1500

  32. 21st Century Computing • Great increases in speed, storage, and memory • Increased networking, speed in Internet • Broadband growth • Netbooks / iPad / tablets • Smart Phones • Impact of touch technology • 3G to 4G (3-5 Mbps / 8-10 Mbps)

  33. What’s next for computers? • Use your imagination to come up with what the coming years hold for computers. • What can we expect in two years? • What can we expect in twenty years? • Voice interface? Siri? Google App • Cloud computing growth • True ubiquity? • Interface to almost all activities? • Automation applications ###