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Discussion Questions

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  1. Discussion Questions Chapter 16

  2. Part I

  3. Question 1 • Before Hutton, it was widely assumed that the features of the Earth's surface were: • A. always there • B. formed by a single, catastrophic event • C. underwent gradual change over time • D. A and B

  4. Question 2 • Hutton observed that rocks, rock structures and features of the earth are all related. This relationship is called: • A. history • B. principle of uniformity • C. principles of geology • D. philosophy

  5. Question 3 • The principle of uniformity has a basic frame of reference. This frame of reference is • A. plate tectonics. • B. continental drift. • C. changes and deformations of rocks today and in the past. • D. compressive strain.

  6. Question 4 • You observe a hill that has been cut-through by a road. The rock layers display a curving shape. What has likely happened to the rock mass? • A. normal faulting • B. reverse faulting • C. folding • D. vulcanism

  7. Question 5 • How a rock responds to stress and strain does NOT depend on • A. nature of the rock. • B. temperature of the rock. • C. pressure on the rock. • D. mass of the rock.

  8. Question 6 • In an anticline, the youngest rocks are found: • A. at the top of the fold • B. in the middle of the fold • C. along the stress fracture • D. at the bottom of the fold

  9. Question 7 • Rocks near or on the surface are NOT • A. cooler than those below the surface. • B. hotter that those below the surface. • C. are less brittle. • D. are under more pressure.

  10. Question 8 • The San Andreas fault is a good example of a • A. normal fault. • B. reverse fault. • C. thrust fault. • D. none of these.

  11. Question 9 • Which is NOT a type of fault? • A. normal • B. reverse • C. thrust • D. forward

  12. Question 10 • The epicenter is located by • A. measuring how long the earthquake lasts. • B. measuring the time difference between P and S waves. • C. using time data from several seismographs to triangulate the location. • D. B and C.

  13. Question 11 • During an earthquake, you should NOT • A. run outdoors if you are indoors. • B. stop your car. • C. move away from power lines. • D. move away from windows.

  14. Question 12 • An earthquake is • A. the result of the sudden release of energy that comes from stress on rock. • B. ground displacement and motion. • C. the cause of tsunamis. • D. all of the above.

  15. Question 13 • The Black Hills in South Dakota and the Adirondack Mountains in New York are • A. arched mountains. • B. domed mountains. • C. volcanic mountains. • D. compressed mountains.

  16. Question 14 • The Appalachian Mountains were formed when • A. North American split from South America. • B. North America collided with Europe and Africa. • C. North America collided with South America. • D. North America split from Europe and Africa.

  17. Question 15 • Mountains that were formed as a result of volcanic eruptions are • A. Alps. • B. Cascades. • C. Rockies. • D. Appalachians.

  18. Question 16 • The source of magma for Mount St. Helens volcano is • A. Cascade Mountains. • B. subduction of the continental lithosphere under the Juan de Fuca plate. • C. subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate under the continental lithosphere. • D. continental lithosphere to Juan de Fuca plate divergence.

  19. Question 17 • In which region of the USA, would one expect to find prominent folded mountains? • A. Pacific Northwestern, as in Oregon • B. Eastern, as in Pennsylvania • C. Midwestern, as in Iowa • D. Southern, as in Alabama

  20. Question 18 • Crushing of rock at a quarry to make smaller sized gravel is an example of • A. physical weathering. • B. chemical weathering. • C. mechanical weathering. • D. reduction weathering.

  21. Question 19 • Fragments of rocks fall into a mountain stream and are carried into the valley. This is an example of • A. weathering. • B. erosion. • C. mass movement. • D. B and C

  22. Question 20 • Tree roots grow and expand, and eventually break though a sidewalk. This is an example of: • A. corrosion. • B. erosion. • C. wedging. • D. disintegration.

  23. Part II

  24. Question 1 • The premise that the present is key to understanding the past is called: • A. history • B. principle of uniformity • C. principles of geology • D. philosophy

  25. Question 2 • The process of deformation that changes the earth's surface is called • A. continental drift. • B. plate tectonics. • C. diastrophism. • D. volcanism.

  26. Question 3 • Diastrophism, the process of deformation that changes the earth's surface is responsible for • A. plateaus. • B. mountains. • C. both A and B. • D. none of the above.

  27. Question 4 • A force that compresses, pulls apart or deforms a rock is called • A. stress. • B. strain. • C. pressure. • D. tension.

  28. Question 5 • The force that does NOT cause rock stress is: • A. compressive • B. tensional • C. shear • D. transform

  29. Question 6 • Rock stress caused by two plates moving together is • A. compressive stress. • B. tensional stress. • C. shear stress. • D. transform stress.

  30. Question 7 • Adjustment to stress is defined as • A. release. • B. strain. • C. pressure. • D. relief.

  31. Question 8 • Rocks at great depths are under • A. lower temperature and higher pressure. • B. higher temperature and higher pressure. • C. higher temperature and lower pressure. • D. lower temperature and lower pressure.

  32. Question 9 • A bend in layered bedrock which resulted from stress is called • A. fracture. • B. fold. • C. fault. • D. twist.

  33. Question 10 • Folds that resemble an arch are called • A. inverted basins. • B. clines. • C. anticlines. • D. synclines.

  34. Question 11 • A fold that forms a trough is called • A. syncline. • B. basin. • C. inverted arch. • D. semicline.

  35. Question 12 • Movement between rocks on one side of a fracture relative to the rocks on the other side of the fracture is called a • A. fracture. • B. transformation. • C. fault. • D. displacement.

  36. Question 13 • The actual place where seismic waves originate is called the _________ of the earthquake. • A. epicenter • B. focus • C. root • D. source

  37. Question 14 • The point on the earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake is called the • A. fault line. • B. epicenter. • C. source. • D. quake starting point.

  38. Question 15 • An earthquake that occurs in the upper part of the mantle is called • A. shallow focus. • B. deep focus. • C. lithosphere focus. • D. intermediate focus.

  39. Question 16 • The size of an earthquake is measured by • A. how many buildings are damaged. • B. amount of energy released at the focus. • C. the height of the tsunami it generated. • D. time of the earthquake.

  40. Question 17 • The energy of the vibrations or the magnitude of an earthquake is reported using the • A. seismograph scale. • B. Richter scale. • C. magnitude scale. • D. Mercalli Scale.

  41. Question 18 • Earthquakes are detected and measured by a • A. seismometer. • B. Geiger counter. • C. Doppler radar. • D. oil well monitors.

  42. Question 19 • Elevated parts of the Earth's crust that rise above the surrounding surface are called: • A. ridges • B. hills • C. plateaus • D. mountains

  43. Question 20 • Which of the following is NOT a classification of mountain origin? • A. folding • B. faulting • C. parallel • D. volcanic

  44. Answers for Part I 1. D 2. B 3. C 4. C 5. D 6. A 7. B 8. D 9. D 10. D 11. A 12. D 13. B 14. B 15. B 16. C 17. B 18. C 19. C 20. C

  45. Answers for Part II 1. B 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. A 7. B 8. B 9. B 10. C 11. A 12. C 13. B 14. B 15. D 16. B 17. B 18. A 19. D 20. C