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How Minerals Form

How Minerals Form

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How Minerals Form

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  1. How Minerals Form

  2. From magma or lava • Atoms form crystal structures as they cool • Crystals from magma deep in the ground tend to be large because of slow cooling • Crystals from magma near the surface and lava tend to be small because of quick cooling

  3. Minerals from solution • When the elements and compounds that are dissolved in water leave a solution, crystallization occurs

  4. Minerals from solution • Evaporites – minerals that form when water evaporates and leaves crystals behind

  5. Minerals from hot solution • Veins – narrow channel or slab of mineral that is different than the surrounding rock • Veins are formed from minerals dissolved in very hot water and crystallize in the cracks of rock.

  6. Classifying Minerals

  7. Mineral Groups • Most minerals are made from only 8 elements O Si Al Fe Ca Na K Mg

  8. There are 12 rock forming minerals Feldspar Quartz Calcite

  9. Minerals are classified by their composition Silicates – Si, O (Most common) Carbonates – C with 3 O Sulfates – S with four O

  10. Halides – contains Cl, F, I, Br • Oxides – O with another element • Sulfides – S with another element • Native Elements

  11. Classify each into a mineral group Carbonate Silicate Sulfide Native element Sulfate Silicate Carbonate Halide Siderite (FeCO3) Talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2) Cinnabar (HgS) Silver (Ag) Barite (BaSO4) Enstatite (MgSiO3) Malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2) Sylvite (KCl)