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How to Identify Minerals… PowerPoint Presentation
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How to Identify Minerals…

How to Identify Minerals…

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How to Identify Minerals…

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Presentation Transcript

  1. How to Identify Minerals…

  2. Why should we know about minerals? • Diet & Nutrition • Calcium, Chlorine, Chromium, Copper, Fluoride, Iodine, Iron, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, vitamins • Kidney stones, gallstones • Water • Cars • Batteries – MP3 players, iPods, cell phones • Electricity • Jewelry • Fool’s gold

  3. Identifying Minerals • What characteristics would you use to identify or classify different minerals? (3,800 minerals) • 9 classifications/properties (physical & chemical properties)

  4. Color • Easy to observe • Not always a clear way to identify

  5. Streak • Streak: the color of its powder • Colors of minerals may vary but streak does not

  6. Luster • Luster: how much light is reflected from a mineral’s surface

  7. Density • Density: how much mass there is in a given space • D = m/v or water displacement

  8. Hardness • Hardness: determined by a scratch test • A mineral can scratch any material softer than itself • But can be scratched by any mineral that is harder • Mohs hardness scale

  9. Mohs Hardness Scale

  10. Crystal Systems • Crystal system: the structure of how the mineral’s atoms form • Ex: cubic, hexagonal, rhombic

  11. Cleavage • Cleavage: when a mineral splits along a flat surface • Ex: Mica

  12. Fracture • Fracture: when a mineral breaks apart in an irregular way

  13. Special Properties • Some minerals are identified by special physical/chemical properties.

  14. Group Identification • Person #1: describe rock to partner using 3-4 properties • Switch

  15. Review • Usually not a clear identifier • Does not break in a flat sheet • Calcite’s powder is always white • Fluorescent • Breaks in flat sheets • Shiny mineral • Cubic shape • Compares how it is scratched/scratches • How much mass takes up a certain volume • Color • Streak • Luster • Density • Hardness • Crystal system • Cleavage • Fracture • Special properties Answers: 1. A 2. C 3. F 4. I 5. H 6. G 7. E 8. B 9. D