Workplacebullying is a moreinclusiveand preferableconcept to sexualharassment
Against This presentation disagrees with thestatementthatworkplacebullying is amoreinclusiveand preferableconceptto sexualharassment.
Understanding Workplace Bullying andSexualHarassment Thereis aCLEARLINEbetween workplacebullying (WPB) and sexualharassment (SH). •According toAdams, bullying at work is separate fromtherecognised problems of sexualharassment… (Adams, 1992) •WPBis oneversion of harassmentand SH is another sub-section of harassment (McCulloch, 2010)
SexualHarassment at Workplace Definitions and forms of,
Deﬁning SH? Threeexisting concerns aboutthedefinitions of SH (Kelly &Radford, 1998): .How SH is conceptualised .Lack of correspondencebetween women’s reports of actualbehaviour &theattribution of SH .Handledifferences of definition between women
Useful Facts to Know aboutSH Term coined in themid-1970s in Ithaca, New York, by a group called Working Women United, formed undertheleadership of theHuman Affairs Program at CornellUniversity. (Thomas & Kitzinger, 1997) SexualHarassmentis oneformof Sexual (World Violence HealthOrganization; PAHO,2012) [Images taken from PowerPoint photo files]
Definition of SexualHarassment SH is defined as ‘‘whereany form of unwanted verbal, non-verbalor physicalconductof asexualnatureoccurs, with thepurposeor effect of violating thedignity of aperson, in particular when creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensiveenvironment.’’(TheIrish Presidency of theEuropean Union, 2004)
Most likely targets of SH •Women of Colour (West&Johnson, 2006) •FemaleMilitary Personnel (PeaceWomen Project, 2010)
Forms of SH •Verbal (Kelly, 1988) üWhistling üSexualjoking üGossip •Physical (WorkplaceBullying, 2013) üBrushing againstanother employee’s body, üUnnecessary touching üPinching üCoercive sexualintercourse
•Visual (Kelly, 1988) (Queensland Government, 2013) üFlashing üSexual Gestures üMenacing Staring üLeering üDisplay of sexualmaterial(e.g. photos or pictures) üSexualreading matter (e.g. emails, faxes or letters)
SexualHarassmentin theUK? •First SH casein theUK dated 1986 of Jean Porcelli (Laboratory technician) versus her two malecolleagues. (Google; The Glasgow Herald, 1986)
Latestcaseof SH EricRaoult (French Mayor of Raincy) versus Agnès Desmaret, (Former Head of Raincy Municipal SocialAction Center) •Sacked Ms Desmaret because she refused his advances •Sent her 15,000 text messages filthy text messages in eight months. •Link: http://goo.gl/hhNmGS •(Le Monde, 2014)
Accusedeharcelernentsexuel,EricRaoultplaidelecccoupdecceur>> LeMonda.frI18.03.2014a19h11•Misajourle19.03.2014a08h50 Partager lJElliunGD Abonnez-vous m Reagir Classer apartirde1€ 14§ifi.Q188personesrecommandentya.Soyezlepremierparm1vos am1s. IJRecommander Sesquelque15000textosenvoyesenneuf moisetaientlefait...d'un«vrai coupdecceur».Accusedeharcelementmoraletsexuelparunecollaboratrice, lemaireUMPduRainey,EricRaoult,areconnu,mardi18mars,dans.f!. Parisienun «momentdefaib/esse».
WorkplaceBullying Definitions, Forms of, and Characteristics
Although anyonecan beguiltyof bullying but true bullyknowsexactlywhat theyaredoing and preciselyhow togo about it. (Graves,2002)
Definitions •WPBis aggression, verbalabuseand violenceby oneor agroup of peopletowards oneor severalpeoplethey interactwith attheir work place. (Stjepanovic, 2013) •Itis concerned with exposureto negative, unwanted acts or behaviour on acontinuum fromcommon and relatively harmless acts to rareand very severeactions. (Hoel&Lewis, 2012)
Facts About WPB .However, thereis no commonly accepted definition ofWPB(Sebok &Rudolph, 2010) .Long-term Duration: six month to years (Loraleigh, 2010) 3.Behaviour often donein plain sightand witnessed by others (Gates, 2010) .WPBmostclosely resembles theexperienceof being a battered spouse(WorkplaceBullying Institute, 2014) .WPBis aseveresocial stressor and by far thestrong predictor of both anxiety and depression as compared to other job stressors compared. (Haugeetal., 2010)
SurveyFindings (WBI – Zorby 2014 US survey findings (WorkplaceBullying Institute, 2014) (Wiedmer, 2010) •Most Bullies arebosses (72%) •57% of targets arewomen •Bullying is fourtimes moreprevalencethan illegal forms of harassment •45% of targets suffer stress-related health problems. •Only 3% of bullied peoplefilelawsuits.
Most likely target ofWPB •LGBTs üTheir sexual idenGty is not simply a work issue as their social lives can be a sourceof idenGﬁcaGon of their idenGty by theircolleagues, for being seen in a gay barorat a GayPrideevent. (Hoel & Lewis,2012)
Newest Form ofWPB •Cyberbullying: [also known as electronic, e- bullying, digital, onlinebullying] (Privitera& Campbell, 2009)
Characteristics •Socialexclusion (Stjepanovic, 2013) (Tehrani, 2012) •Personal Derogation: useof humiliation, ridiculing (Tehrani, 2012), namecalling (Stjepanovic, 2013) •Slagging (Rafferty, 2007) •Failureto givecredit when dueand repeated reminders of error (Kumar etal., 2012)
LatestcaseofWPB Jonathan MartinVs. Richie Incognito (Miami DolphinTeam) ConclusiveReport:http://goo.gl/IxHBtgComprehensivenarrative: http://goo.gl/Oi3L3r
Justaswethought:RichieIncognitobulliedJonathanMartin _EmailCshare,170W'Tweet@ ,,... C]Comments 53 NFL:JonathanMartinwasbulliedbyRichie Incognito,reportconcludes LastUpdated:141021145:51pm Share: IJf; "' 2 1 MiamiDolphinsguardRichieIncognito(68)andtackleJonathanMartin(71)lookoverplaysduringanNFLpreseaso footballgameagainsttheTampaBay BuccaneersinMiami Gardens, Fla.(WilfredoLee/ AssociatedPress/August24 2013) R1ch1eIncognitoReportsayshedid bullyJonathanMartin
“Would we, when allowed to work for pay, bemadeto work atthemostmenialjobs and exploited atbarely starvation level? If women werehuman, would our violation beenjoyed by our violators?” (MacKinnon, 2007 :41)
Thank You Claire Ayelotan
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