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Ag ain s t

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Ag ain s t

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  1. Workplacebullying is a moreinclusiveand preferableconcept to sexualharassment

  2. Against This presentation disagrees with thestatementthatworkplacebullying is amoreinclusiveand preferableconceptto sexualharassment.

  3. Understanding Workplace Bullying andSexualHarassment Thereis aCLEARLINEbetween workplacebullying (WPB) and sexualharassment (SH). •According toAdams, bullying at work is separate fromtherecognised problems of sexualharassment… (Adams, 1992) •WPBis oneversion of harassmentand SH is another sub-section of harassment (McCulloch, 2010)

  4. SexualHarassment(SH)

  5. SexualHarassment at Workplace Definitions and forms of,

  6. Defining SH? Threeexisting concerns aboutthedefinitions of SH (Kelly &Radford, 1998): .How SH is conceptualised .Lack of correspondencebetween women’s reports of actualbehaviour &theattribution of SH .Handledifferences of definition between women

  7. Useful Facts to Know aboutSH Term coined in themid-1970s in Ithaca, New York, by a group called Working Women United, formed undertheleadership of theHuman Affairs Program at CornellUniversity. (Thomas & Kitzinger, 1997) SexualHarassmentis oneformof Sexual (World Violence HealthOrganization; PAHO,2012) [Images taken from PowerPoint photo files]

  8. Definition of SexualHarassment SH is defined as ‘‘whereany form of unwanted verbal, non-verbalor physicalconductof asexualnatureoccurs, with thepurposeor effect of violating thedignity of aperson, in particular when creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensiveenvironment.’’(TheIrish Presidency of theEuropean Union, 2004)

  9. Most likely targets of SH •Women of Colour (West&Johnson, 2006) •FemaleMilitary Personnel (PeaceWomen Project, 2010)

  10. Forms of SH •Verbal (Kelly, 1988) üWhistling üSexualjoking üGossip •Physical (WorkplaceBullying, 2013) üBrushing againstanother employee’s body, üUnnecessary touching üPinching üCoercive sexualintercourse

  11. •Visual (Kelly, 1988) (Queensland Government, 2013) üFlashing üSexual Gestures üMenacing Staring üLeering üDisplay of sexualmaterial(e.g. photos or pictures) üSexualreading matter (e.g. emails, faxes or letters)

  12. SexualHarassmentin theUK? •First SH casein theUK dated 1986 of Jean Porcelli (Laboratory technician) versus her two malecolleagues. (Google; The Glasgow Herald, 1986)

  13. Latestcaseof SH EricRaoult (French Mayor of Raincy) versus Agnès Desmaret, (Former Head of Raincy Municipal SocialAction Center) •Sacked Ms Desmaret because she refused his advances •Sent her 15,000 text messages filthy text messages in eight months. •Link: •(Le Monde, 2014)

  14. Accusedeharcelernentsexuel,EricRaoultplaidelecccoupdecceur>> LeMonda.frI18.03.2014a19h11•Misajourle19.03.2014a08h50 Partager lJElliunGD Abonnez-vous m Reagir Classer apartirde1€ 14§ifi.Q188personesrecommandentya.Soyezlepremierparm1vos am1s. IJRecommander Sesquelque15000textosenvoyesenneuf moisetaientlefait...d'un«vrai coupdecceur».Accusedeharcelementmoraletsexuelparunecollaboratrice, lemaireUMPduRainey,EricRaoult,areconnu,mardi18mars,dans.f!. Parisienun «momentdefaib/esse».

  15. Workplace Bullying (WPB)

  16. WorkplaceBullying Definitions, Forms of, and Characteristics

  17. Although anyonecan beguiltyof bullying but true bullyknowsexactlywhat theyaredoing and preciselyhow togo about it. (Graves,2002)

  18. Definitions •WPBis aggression, verbalabuseand violenceby oneor agroup of peopletowards oneor severalpeoplethey interactwith attheir work place. (Stjepanovic, 2013) •Itis concerned with exposureto negative, unwanted acts or behaviour on acontinuum fromcommon and relatively harmless acts to rareand very severeactions. (Hoel&Lewis, 2012)

  19. Facts About WPB .However, thereis no commonly accepted definition ofWPB(Sebok &Rudolph, 2010) .Long-term Duration: six month to years (Loraleigh, 2010) 3.Behaviour often donein plain sightand witnessed by others (Gates, 2010) .WPBmostclosely resembles theexperienceof being a battered spouse(WorkplaceBullying Institute, 2014) .WPBis aseveresocial stressor and by far thestrong predictor of both anxiety and depression as compared to other job stressors compared. (Haugeetal., 2010)

  20. SurveyFindings (WBI – Zorby 2014 US survey findings (WorkplaceBullying Institute, 2014) (Wiedmer, 2010) •Most Bullies arebosses (72%) •57% of targets arewomen •Bullying is fourtimes moreprevalencethan illegal forms of harassment •45% of targets suffer stress-related health problems. •Only 3% of bullied peoplefilelawsuits.

  21. Most likely target ofWPB •LGBTs üTheir sexual idenGty is not simply a work issue as their social lives can be a sourceof idenGficaGon of their idenGty by theircolleagues, for being seen in a gay barorat a GayPrideevent. (Hoel & Lewis,2012)

  22. Newest Form ofWPB •Cyberbullying: [also known as electronic, e- bullying, digital, onlinebullying] (Privitera& Campbell, 2009)

  23. Characteristics •Socialexclusion (Stjepanovic, 2013) (Tehrani, 2012) •Personal Derogation: useof humiliation, ridiculing (Tehrani, 2012), namecalling (Stjepanovic, 2013) •Slagging (Rafferty, 2007) •Failureto givecredit when dueand repeated reminders of error (Kumar etal., 2012)

  24. LatestcaseofWPB Jonathan MartinVs. Richie Incognito (Miami DolphinTeam) ConclusiveReport:

  25. Justaswethought:RichieIncognitobulliedJonathanMartin _EmailCshare,170W'Tweet@ ,,... C]Comments 53 NFL:JonathanMartinwasbulliedbyRichie Incognito,reportconcludes LastUpdated:141021145:51pm Share: IJf; "' 2 1 MiamiDolphinsguardRichieIncognito(68)andtackleJonathanMartin(71)lookoverplaysduringanNFLpreseaso footballgameagainsttheTampaBay BuccaneersinMiami Gardens, Fla.(WilfredoLee/ AssociatedPress/August24 2013) R1ch1eIncognitoReportsayshedid bullyJonathanMartin

  26. Final thought

  27. “Would we, when allowed to work for pay, bemadeto work atthemostmenialjobs and exploited atbarely starvation level? If women werehuman, would our violation beenjoyed by our violators?” (MacKinnon, 2007 :41)

  28. Thank You Claire Ayelotan

  29. Bibliography •Adams,A., 1992. Forewarned is Forearmed. InAdams,A. Bullying atWork: How to Confront and Overcome. 1sted. London, UK:Virago Press. p.10. •Gates, D., 2010. Many bullying policies lack 'teeth,' ineffective. OccupationalHealth Management, 20(11), pp.123-23. •Gavey, N., 2005. Unsexy Sex: Unwanted Sex, SexualCoercion,And Rape. In Gavey, N. JustSex? TheCulturalScaffolding ofRape. 1sted. East Sussex, UK: Routledge. p.145. •Google;The Glasgow Herald, 1986. School Lab Technician Wins Harassment Case. [Online]Availableat:HYPERLINK ",58928",58928 [Accessed 3 March 2014]. •Graves, D., 2002. Fighting Back: How to Fight Bullying in the Workplace. 1sted. Berkshire, UK: McGraw-Hill Professional Ltd.

  30. •Hauge, L.J., Skogstad,A. &Einarsen, S., 2010. TheRelative ImpactofWorkplace Bullying as a SocialStressor atWork. [Online] Bergen:Wiley-BlackwellAvailable at:HYPERLINK "" [Accessed 18 March 2014]. •Hoel, H. & Lewis, D., 2012. Bullying, Harassment and Sexual Orientation in theWorkplace. In J.M. Brown & S.L.Walklate, eds. Handbook On SexualViolence. 1st ed. Oxon, UK:Routledge. p.406. •Hoel, H. & Lewis, D., 2012. Bullying, harassment and sexual orientation in the workplace. In J.M. Brown & S.L.Walklate, eds. Handbook on SexualViolence. 1st ed. London, NewYork , UK, USA:Routledge. pp.394-416. •Johnson, S.L., 2011.An Ecological Model ofWorkplaceBullying:AGuide for Intervention and Research. Nursing Forum, 46(2), pp.55-63. •Kelly, L., 1988. 'It's everywhere: sexualviolenceas acontinuum (2) : sexual harassmentand sexualassault. In Kelly, L. Surviving SexualViolence. 1sted. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. p.103.

  31. •Kelly, L. &Radford, J., 1998. SexualViolenceAgainstWomen and Girls:An Approach to an International Overview. In E.R. Dobash &R.P. Dobash, eds. Rethinking ViolenceAgainstWomen. 1sted. London, UK: Sage Publications Ltd. pp.53-76. •Kim, J.N., 2008.TheCubicleBully. ScientificAmerican Mind, June/July. pp.13-13. •Kumar, G., Jain,A. & Kumar, B., 2012. Bullying in the workplace:recognition and management. Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, 14(2), pp.130-35. •Le Monde, 2014. Accusé de harcèlement sexuel, EricRaoultplaidele « coup de cœur ». [Online] Le MondeAvailableat:HYPERLINK "" •hPp://­‐de-­‐harcelement-­‐sexuel-­‐eric-­‐raoult-­‐reconnait-­‐un-­‐moment-­‐de-­‐faiblesse_4385314_3224.html [Accessed 19March 2014]. •Loraleigh, K., 2010.AResearcher Speaks to Ombudsmen aboutWorkplace Bullying. JournaloftheInternational OmbudsmanAssociation, 3(2), pp.10-23. •MacKinnon, C.A., 2007.AreWomen Human? In MacKinnon, C.A. AreWomen Human?And Other International Dialogues. 1sted. Cambridge, London, USA, UK:TheBelknap Press of Harvard University Press. p.41.

  32. •McCulloch, B., 2010. Dealing with Bullying Behaviours in theWorkplace:WhatWorks -APractitioner'sView. JournaloftheInternational Ombudsman Association , 3(2), pp.39-51. •PeaceWomen Project, 2010. Sexualand Gender-BasedViolence (SGBV). In I. Cutting, ed. Women, Peace and Security Handbook: Compilation andAnalysis ofUnited Nations SecurityCouncilResolution Language 2000-2010. NewYork, USA: PeaceWomen Project ofWomen's InternationalLeague for Peaceand Freedom. p. 28.Authors of this handbook on behalf of PeaceWomen Project ofWILPF: Maria Butler, Kristina Mader and Rachel Kean. •Peyton, R.P., 2003.ABackground to Bullying atWork:What Constitutes Harassmentand Bullying. In DignityatWork: Eliminating Bullying and Create a PositiveWorking Environment. 1sted. East Sussex, UK:Brunner-Routledge. p.216. •Privitera, C. & Campbell, M.A., 2009. Cyberbullying:The New Face ofWorkplace Bullying?CyberPsychology&Behaviour, 12(4), pp.395-400. •Queensland Government, 2013. Workplace harassment and bullying: Sexualharassmentexamples. [Online]Availableat:HYPERLINK ""[Accessed 19 March 2014].

  33. •Rafferty, M., 2007. Bullying and Harassmentin theWorkplace. Irish Veterinary Journal, 60(11), pp.689-90. •Sebok,T. &Rudolph, M.C., 2010. Cases InvolvingAllegations ofWorkplace Bullying:Threats to Ombuds Neutrality and Other Challenges. Journalofthe International OmbudsmanAssociation, 3(2), pp.24-33. •Stjepanovic, N.S., 2013.WhatisWorkplaceBullying? In Stjepanovic, N.S.I Survived WorkplaceBullying ThreeTimesAnd Lived To TellMyStory. Bloomington, USA: Balboa Press. p.Loc 133.This is an ebook version.. •Tehrani, N., 2012. Introduction toWorkplaceBullying. In N.Tehrani, ed. WorkplaceBullying: Symptons and Solutions. 1sted. East Sussex, UK:Routledge. p.4. •Tehrani, N., 2012. Introduction toWorkplaceBullying. In N.Tehrani, ed. WorkplaceBullying: Symptoms and Solutions. ebook edition ed. London, UK: Routledge. •The Irish Presidency of the European Union, 2004. REPORTONSEXUAL HARASSMENTIN THE WORKPLACE IN EU MEMBER STATES. [Online] Farrell Grant SparksAvailableat:HYPERLINK ""

  34. • [Accessed 13 March 2014]. Reportproduced in collaboration with in association with FGS Consulting and ProfessorAileen McGolgan. •Thomas,A.M. & Kitzinger, C., 1997. Sexual Harassment:Reviewing the Field. In A.M.Thomas &C. Kitzinger, eds. Sexual Harassment: ContemporaryFeminist Perspectives. 1sted. Buckingham, Bristol, UK, USA: Open University Press. p.2. •Weiss, Paul, 2014. Well, Theodore, V. [Online]Availableat:HYPERLINK "" [Accessed 24 February 2014]. •West, C.M. & Johnson, J., 2006.SexualViolencein the Lives ofAfricanAmerican Women: Risk, Response, and Resilience. [Online] NationalResourceCenter on DomesticViolenceAvailableat:HYPERLINK "" [Accessed 24 February 2014]. •Wiedmer,T.L., 2010.WorkplaceBullying: Costly and Preventable. Delta KappaGamma Bulletin, 77(2).

  35. •Wise, S. & Stanley, L., 1987. Definitions and wherethey comefrom. In Georgie Porgie: Sexual Harassmentin Everyday Life. 1sted. London, NewYork, UK, USA: Pandora Press. p.15. •WorkplaceBullying Institute, 2014. 2014 WBI U.S. WorkplaceBullying Survey February 2014. [Online]WorkplaceBullying InstituteAvailableat:HYPERLINK"" [Accessed 19 March 2014]. •WorkplaceBullying Institute, 2014. TheWBI Definition ofWorkplaceBullying. [Online]Availableat:HYPERLINK "" [Accessed 19 March 2014]. •WorkplaceBullying, 2013. Whatis Sexual Harassment? [Online]Availableat:HYPERLINK ""[Accessed 19 March 2014]. •World Health Organization;PAHO, 2012. SexualViolence. In S. Ramsay, ed. Understanding andAddressing ViolenceAgainstWomen. Geneva, Switzerland: Pan American Health Organization;WHO. p.6.This sheetis part of acomprehensiveseries on understanding and addressing violenceagainst women.