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Glaciers and the Great Ice Ages PowerPoint Presentation
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Glaciers and the Great Ice Ages

Glaciers and the Great Ice Ages

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Glaciers and the Great Ice Ages

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    1. Glaciers and the Great Ice Ages

    2. Pleistocene Epoch: the Great Ice Ages 2.0 Ma to 10,000 years ago Four (or more) distinct episodes expansion and melting of ice sheets (continental glaciers) Each ice advance lasted for 40,000 to 200,000 years Warm spells lasted 10,000 to 30,000 years Are we living in a warm period now between ice ages?Each ice advance lasted for 40,000 to 200,000 years Warm spells lasted 10,000 to 30,000 years Are we living in a warm period now between ice ages?

    3. Why did the climate change so drastically and repeatedly? Climate change and variations in Earths orbit Eccentricity: elliptical to nearly circular cycles Obliquity: cyclic changes in tilt of axis Precession: cyclic change inwobble of the axis Variations affect amount and distribution of solar energy received by Earth Milankovitch cycles are in the right time range to possibly explain cyclic changes in climateMilankovitch cycles are in the right time range to possibly explain cyclic changes in climate

    4. How does a glacier form? Cold climate is necessary Annual snow accumulation is greater than annual rate of melting Snow builds up over time Snow recrystallizes to ice

    5. Glacial Flow Ice begins to flow (plastic deformation) under the influence of gravity Glacier = mass of flowing ice

    6. Glacial Flow Glacial Flow is constant Some parts of glacier are melting Rate of accumulation vs. rate of melting determines if glacier will advance or if end of glacier will melt back (glaciers never flow backwards)

    7. Glaciers and Landscapes Flowing ice picks up sediment, soil, etc. Breaks loose pieces of bedrock Modifies landscape by erosion and deposition

    8. Erosion by Glaciers Striations: scratchmarks made as ice drags rocks across bedrock

    9. Erosion by Glaciers Modifies V shaped river valleys to a U shape

    10. Deposition by Glaciers Erratics pieces of exotic rock left by glacier Till unsorted, unstratified sediments dumped by ice Outwash sorted and stratified sand and gravel deposited by meltwater

    11. Deposition by glaciers Lacustrine sediments Lakes form between melting edge of ice and obstructions (often deposits of till) Fine silt and clay settle in calm water Clay may be used in pottery and brick making If lakes drain or fill with sediment: bogs and swamps ecologically important wetlands Water-logged lacustrine sediments may cause tilting and sinking of buildings constructed on them

    12. Glaciers and Landforms Characteristic landforms

    13. New Yorks Glacial Landscape Shaped by Erosion and Deposition

    15. Glaciers and New Yorks Landscape Great Lakes Erie and Ontario Glacially widened and deepened E-W stream valleys Finger Lakes Glacially deepened N-S stream valleys Mohawk Valley misfit stream Glacially widened and deepened E-W stream valley Glacial Lake Albany drained when ice left Hudson Valley

    16. Glaciers and New Yorks Landscape Susquehanna Valley modified to U shape Dammed by till at Wells Bridge (near Otego) Dam broke and lake drained

    17. Glaciers and New Yorks Landscape Hudson Valley a fjord Glacially deepened N-S stream valley Flooded when sea level rose Salt water as far north as Poughkeepsie Tides affect river level as far north as Troy Ocean freighters can sail up to Albany an inland seaport

    18. Kensetts Hudson - Fjord

    19. Palisades (igneous rock) along the Hudson Fjord

    20. Hudson Fjord, Long Island Sound, Moraines and Outwash of Long Island

    21. Glaciers and New Yorks Landscape Long Island Two terminal moraines Outwash plain Long Island Sound - Glacially widened stream valley flooded by rising sea level

    22. Other Glacial Features Outwash channels Niagara River Hanging valleys and waterfalls very prominent in the Finger Lakes Kettle lakes Drumlins

    23. Churchs Niagara Falls Outwash Channel

    24. Glaciers and New Yorks Economy Thick, fertile soils developed on till and outwash foundation of agriculture in state Microclimate associated with Lakes Water moderates climate Warmer in winter, cooler in summer Ideal for growing grapes/producing wine Aquifers especially in outwash Sand and gravel for construction