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Ref. book: Engineering Management By Fraidoon Mazda

Management:. Ref. book: Engineering Management By Fraidoon Mazda. Definitions of Management. What is management? The history of management Types of manager Management responsibilities Management tasks The engineering manager. What is Management ?. No single answer

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Ref. book: Engineering Management By Fraidoon Mazda

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  1. Management: Ref. book: Engineering Management By Fraidoon Mazda

  2. Definitions of Management • What is management? • The history of management • Types of manager • Management responsibilities • Management tasks • The engineering manager

  3. What is Management? • No single answer • Management is the use of techniques, based on measures, artfully applied. • Saying: • there are those who do things (workers) and those who talk about things (managers) (Incorrect statement)

  4. What is management? • Scientific ideas usually come from individuals, but it needs a large multi disciplined team to develop it into a product and to take it to market .The activities of this team need to be coordinated and ‘managed’. • Much greater leverage can be obtained from a well-organized team than by its members working as individuals.

  5. What is management? • To young engineers management may be something ‘they’ do, a world full of time wasting effort spent mainly on covering up one’s mistakes and stabbing peers in the back, thus attempting to reach the top of the corporate ladder . (Fig 2.1) This is obviously incorrect impression. Then what is management and how does one become a ‘good’ manager?

  6. One Golden Rule • The one golden rule about management is that there are no golden rules • It is not an exact science, like Engineering • Tasks are predictable and People are not, and everything in management eventually leads to people 2 + 2 = ?

  7. As there are no fixed rules • all that one can hope to do is to learn the basic techniques the ‘language’ of management • and then to be guided by experience, bearing in mind that management requires a constant reappraisal of all that has been learnt, since it is almost certain that changes will occur over time

  8. Example How to play football? You cannot learn just reading a book. However this is an essential first step: learning the basic principles and rules. Reality of management does not fully match the text

  9. Remember • Managers are not the bosses • They are simple employees, doing a job for which they have acquired certain skills • The engineer who goes into management expecting to be a leader, to issue commands and have subordinates follow without question, will be disappointed

  10. History of management • The practices of engineering and of management may be considered to have grown hand in hand. • An Example: Pyramids of Egypt

  11. History of management • However, as a profession, management is relatively new, if one applies the definition of a professional. • In the UK the IEE set up a professional group on Engineering Management in 1970, almost 100 yrs after its birth. • The growth of large corporations in the 1950s, particularly multinationals, provided a boost to the professional management • Good working conditions compared with the public sector

  12. Definition of a Professionalis • One having a minimum standard of educational or work achievement, administered by an independent body to which members belong • A person with a high degree of knowledge or skill in a particular field

  13. Management theory was first popularized in the USA and spread slowly to Europe. The first business school was founded at the University of Philadelphia in 1881 and a hundred years later there were over 500 business schools in the USA. • How such a growth was in Pakistan?

  14. Management techniques have also changed over the years, emphasis on different techniques being largely dictated by the industrial scene at the time. • The post war period saw a steady expansion in the developed countries, and the emphasis was on corporate planning for growth • The oil crisis of 1973 ……………. Short term payback became the key consideration, not long-term growth. • Recent Yrs….X-tics those of both the periods.

  15. Types of Manager • Managers come in every shape and size, with very different personalities …not surprising, since managers are, after all, human. • It should also be remembered that all employees within an organization, are in reality managers, being responsible for their own tasks if nothing else.

  16. Management levels • Organization chart • Interaction between the various levels of management (fig 2.2) • Manager’s manager • Subordinate’s subordinates • Numerous peers, both within the same function and within different functions • Usually managers progress up the corporate ladder, in a zigzag fashion

  17. Organization's size • there is debate as to the optimum size for maximum efficiency Figure 2.3 • Material considerations favor large sizes • People considerations favors much smaller units, critical mass being reached much sooner

  18. People considerations • In large teams there can be many communication problems and time wasted in ensuring that communication occurs smoothly. • Staff working on large projects are less able to see the contribution that their individual efforts make towards the organization’s goals, • The larger the team the greater the amount of overheads it needs, such as supervision and coordination. Organizations may be structured into divisions or profit centers.

  19. Management styles • The style used is often determined by the personality of the manager concerned. Seven styles to be described here • A manager often displays many of the attributes of these styles. • Experienced managers may also vary their style to suite the situation

  20. Administrators • Very formal in their approach • Looks to company rules and regulations for solving all problems • Often limited to one level upwards and downwards • They are not good at resolving conflict ? • In spite of their rather mechanistic approach they are generally respected by their staff, and by peers, for their organizational loyalty and knowledge

  21. Time Servers • These are generally older managers who have lost interest in their job and environment • They take all necessary actions to avoid stress, and maintain a low profile within the company • If motivated, they can become a very valuable asset to the organization. They can build an effective team if they try.

  22. Climbers • driven by extreme personal ambition and will sacrifice everything, including self and family to get to the top • pursue personal advancement by fair means or foul • However, they become demodulated if this does not show quick results, and this can eventually lead to stress

  23. Generals • Generals work extremely hard, driving themselves and those under them • Usually a younger person who likes to rule and manipulate power but is achievement oriented • Usually they are optimistic about the future, sometimes wrongly

  24. Supporters • usually experienced managers who are knowledgeable in management techniques and apply them where they can • They delegate responsibilities • The people working under them are highly motivated • They get support from the specialists within their department • Supporters tend to be loners and do not mix well with peers ?

  25. Nice guys • These managers are usually weak- willed and are more interested in being liked, by peers and subordinates, than in achieving targets • The productivity of the group is low and conflicts waiting to burst out • Ready to yield to pressure from almost any source

  26. Bosses • These managers are bullies! Using power is like a drug • They drive the people under them but not themselves • They expect recognition from peers, but often do not get it • Extremely inflexible, only strong talkers, and hide behind abusive language • They can show result for a short-term only • They advance by pointing out the mistakes of others, and not by their own achievements

  27. A comparison • two main factors when comparing the strengths of the various styles: People and Tasks • Each style has its strengths and weaknesses and • each style has its place in various circumstances • Compartmentalization in Fig 2.4 does not give true picture

  28. Management responsibilities • The functions that a manager performs are complex, which is partly why it is so difficult to define and record them accurately • Manager’s main task is to deal with other people, and human behavior is complex and difficult to predict • Generally, managers operate in an environment in which they voluntarily accept certain responsibilities as part of their jobs, while being constrained by other factors Fig 2.5

  29. Management responsibilities • The shareholders expect to receive a return for their investments, measured in terms of dividends and growth • Reward to employees • Customer satisfaction: • External & Internal Customers • Marketing • Relationship between the organization and its suppliers

  30. Management responsibilities • Responsibility to the community • Competitors • Governments acts: Direct and Indirect • the natural environment • The labour market, especially in case of skilled labour • Pressure groups

  31. Describe the responsibilities of: • A teacher • A student • Chairman of the Department Assignment

  32. Management Tasks • 4 interrelated groups • Planning • Organizing • Integrating • Measuring

  33. Planning Phase • Define goals, objectives and policies • Strategic plan: • the line of action, to reach the goals • SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis • must be related back to the set of goals • establishes processes and sets performance standards, which are used later in the measuring phase. • includes budgets, covering expenses, capital and human resources. • Training plans and costs have to be included • These plans also have to be communicated to all involved in the project

  34. Two of the key items to be covered during the planning phase • Need for change (easy or difficult) • a change in the political scene • a change in the company’s policies • Process for change • the manager should be proactive, foreseeing change and taking early action, rather than reacting to change

  35. Organizing Phase • splitting of the work into manageable tasks and allocation to groups or individuals • ensure that tasks are coordinated and duplication is avoided • Jobs and responsibilities need to be clearly defined (may be difficult due to flexible boundaries and overlaps) • teams established and team leaders appointed • understand the needs of their customers and ensure that these are communicated to all

  36. Integrating Phase • see the whole picture • obtain accurate information on which decision is based • Risks must be taken, not avoided (risk management) • set the direction, but be flexible enough to change if their decision proves to be wrong, or if circumstances change • team members are in communication where their work affects each other • eventual goals are kept continually in front of the team and they are motivated to achieve them

  37. Measuring Phase • taking stock of achievements and putting in corrective actions, including process changes if necessary • must be taken continually throughout the implementation phase, not only at the end • Items that need to be measured and controlled during the project, include: • The costs, which include salaries and expenses • The use of skills and specialized equipments • Progress on the project, measured on a time-scale • The quality of the product

  38. The methods for taking measures • formal weekly measures chart • the informal measures, a manger is continually making throughout the day: MWA, (Management by Walking About), • The prime purpose of a measure is to record and provide feed back, resulting in corrective action and process improvement • Measurable targets for individuals may be used for growing staff and rewarding them, and not for finding defects and determining punishment

  39. Three Common Mistakes • Measures are put in place because they are required by the company • Managers feel that a poorly performing team reflects badly on them (as a backward class reflects on the quality of the teaching) • Managers do not fully trust their staff and apply very tight measures and controls

  40. The Engineering Manager • Saying: Management is management; it does not matter whether it is an Engineering department or a grocery shop • Feeling: Management requires common sense and nothing more • Unfortunately, many engineers have no planning to take management as a career, (just by promotion) and then a good engineer may not be a good manager • Managers must learn to work through other people • Dual career ladder ……… ?

  41. Engineers vs Engg Managers • Technical Considerations: • Management is creative and complex, as rules are not fixed and environment continually changing • Engineers working on technical projects want to be managed by someone who can understand their technical problems and …….. • Engg managers have to get resources approved for their projects

  42. Engineers vs Engg Managers • The Time factor • Engineering tasks require thought and time, e.g. a design spread over months • Engineering management requires the ability to shift rapidly from one task to the next, from one person to another, often in the space of a few minutes • Managers are called upon to maintain an open door policy They cannot shut themselves away for any length of time • Time management Chapter 20

  43. Engineers vs Engg Managers • The people factor • An engineer is primarily concerned with tasks while an engineering manager is concerned with people, whether they are within one’s direct control or not • Engineers find this wasteful of time and would rather do things themselves, something which the engineering manager must never do • Managers must delegate technical tasks. • Reviews and discussions with staff should not be limited to tasks, but should cover personnel issues as well, such as development • A manager cannot poach staff from another department • Engineering managers must plan for product failure and be able to reorganize their team when it occurs

  44. Assignments • Show the management behaviour in the form of flow chart, As you see it in university. • History of growth in Engg Management in Pakistan? • Describe the responsibilities of: • A teacher • A student • Chairman of the Department • Case studies:

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